International Business Machines Corporation
Artificial intelligence
Cloud computing
Computer hardware
Computer software
Quantum computing
PredecessorsBundy Manufacturing Company
Computing Scale Company of America
International Time Recording Company
Tabulating Machine Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
FoundedJune 16, 1911 (1911-06-16) (as Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)
Endicott, New York, U.S.[1]
FounderCharles Ranlett Flint (amalgamator of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)
Area served
177 countries[2]
Key people
Arvind Krishna
(Chairman and CEO)
Jim Whitehurst
RevenueDecrease US$73.62 billion (2020)[3]
Decrease US$6.89 billion (2020)[3]
Decrease US$5.59 billion (2020)[3]
Total assets Increase US$155.97 billion (2020)[3]
Total equityDecrease US$20.73 billion (2020)[3]
Number of employees
345,900 (2020)[3]

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 171 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York by trust businessman Charles Ranlett Flint, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York.[4]

IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most annual U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2020) for 28 consecutive years.[5]

Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.

IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 345,000 employees as of 2020. At least 70% of IBM employees are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBM employees is India.[6]

  1. ^ "Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co", Appendix to Hearings Before the Committee on Patents, House of Representatives, Seventy-Fourth Congress, on H. R. 4523, Part III, United States Government Printing Office, 1935 [Incorporation paperwork filed June 16, 1911]
  2. ^ "IBM Is Blowing Up Its Annual Performance Review". Fortune. February 1, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "IBM Reports 2020 Fourth-Quarter and Full-Year Results" (PDF). Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  4. ^ "10-K". 10-K. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  5. ^ "Top Patent Holders of 2020". Nasdaq. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  6. ^ Goel, Vindu (September 28, 2017). "IBM Now Has More Employees in India Than in the U.S." The New York Times.

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