Austria-Hungary


Austro-Hungarian monarchy
Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie  (German)
Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia  (Hungarian)
1867–1918
Motto: Indivisibiliter ac inseparabiliter
("Indivisibly and inseparably")
Anthem: Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze
("God preserve, God protect")
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1914).svg
Cisleithania, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg
  Cisleithania, or "Austria"
Capital
Largest cityVienna
Official languages
Other spoken languages:
Czech, Polish, Ruthenian, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Italian, Romani (Carpathian), Yiddish,[4] and others (Friulian, Istro-Romanian, Ladin)
Religion
(1910 census[5])
Demonym(s)Austro-Hungarian
GovernmentConstitutional dual monarchy
Emperor-King 
• 1867–1916
Franz Joseph I
• 1916–1918
Karl I & IV
Minister-President of Austria 
• 1867 (first)
F. F. von Beust
• 1918 (last)
Heinrich Lammasch
Prime Minister of Hungary 
• 1867–1871 (first)
Gyula Andrássy
• 1918 (last)
János Hadik
Legislature2 national legislatures
Historical era
30 March 1867
7 October 1879
6 October 1908
28 June 1914
28 July 1914
31 October 1918
12 November 1918
16 November 1918
10 September 1919
4 June 1920
Area
1905[6]621,538 km2 (239,977 sq mi)
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Austrian Empire
First Austrian Republic (legal successor)
Kingdom of Hungary (legal successor)
First Czechoslovak Republic (territorial)
Second Polish Republic (territorial)
West Ukrainian People's Republic (territorial)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (territorial)
Kingdom of Romania (territorial)
Kingdom of Italy (territorial)

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire[a] or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe[b] between 1867 and 1918.[7][8] It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War and was dissolved shortly after its defeat in the First World War.

Austria-Hungary was ruled by the House of Habsburg and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg monarchy. It was a multinational state and one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2 (239,977 sq mi)[6] and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry in the world, after the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom.[9] Austria-Hungary also became the world's third-largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances, and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire.[10]

At its core was the dual monarchy which was a real union between Cisleithania, the northern and western parts of the former Austrian Empire, and the Kingdom of Hungary. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and Hungarian states were co-equal in power. The two states conducted common foreign, defense, and financial policies, but all other governmental faculties were divided among respective states. A third component of the union was the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, an autonomous region under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina came under Austro-Hungarian joint military and civilian rule[11] until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers.[12]

Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Italy were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference wien-vienna was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Fisher, Gilman. The Essentials of Geography for School Year 1888–1889, p. 47. New England Publishing Company (Boston), 1888. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Austria-Races". Ninth edition - Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. III. p. 118.
  4. ^ From the Encyclopædia Britannica (1878),[3] although note that this "Romani" refers to the language of those described by the EB as "Gypsies"; the EB's "Rumäni or Wallachian" refers to what is today known as Romanian; Rusyn and Ukrainian correspond to dialects of what the EB refers to as "Ruthenian"; and Yiddish was the common language of the Austrian Jews, although Hebrew was also known by many.
  5. ^ Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde, 1911, Tabelle 3.
  6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ah1911 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ McCarthy, Justin (1880). A History of Our Own Times, from 1880 to the Diamond Jubilee. New York, United States of America: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. pp. 475–476.
  8. ^ Dallin, David (November 2006). The Rise of Russia in Asia. ISBN 978-1-4067-2919-1.
  9. ^ Schulze, Max-Stephan. Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria–Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century, p. 295. Peter Lang (Frankfurt), 1996.
  10. ^ Publishers' Association, Booksellers Association of Great Britain and Ireland (1930). The Publisher, Volume 133. p. 355.
  11. ^ Minahan, James. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, p. 48.
  12. ^ "Jayne, Kingsley Garland (1911). "Bosnia and Herzegovina" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 279–286.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).


Powered by 654 easy search