Australia


Commonwealth of Australia
Anthem: Advance Australia Fair[N 1]
A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.
Commonwealth of Australia, including the Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic
CapitalCanberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444
Largest citySydney
Official languagesNone at the federal level
National languageEnglish[N 2]
Religion
(2016)[3]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
David Hurley
Scott Morrison
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
1 January 1901
9 October 1942 (with effect
from 3 September 1939)
3 March 1986
Area
• Total
7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq mi) (6th)
• Water (%)
1.79 (as of 2015)[6]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 25,999,300[7] (53rd)
• 2016 census
23,401,892[8]
• Density
3.4/km2 (8.8/sq mi) (192nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.605 trillion[9] (18th)
• Per capita
Increase $61,941[9] (21st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.748 trillion[9] (13th)
• Per capita
Increase $67,464[9] (11th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 32.5[10]
medium · 16th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.944[11]
very high · 8th
CurrencyAustralian dollar ($) (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+8; +9.5; +10 (Various[N 4])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8; +9.5; +10;
+10.5; +11
(Various[N 4])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd[12]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+61
ISO 3166 codeAU
Internet TLD.au

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.[13] With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi),[14] Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest,[15] flattest,[16] and driest inhabited continent,[17][18] with the least fertile soils.[19][20] It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Indigenous Australians have inhabited the continent for approximately 65,000 years.[21] The European maritime exploration of Australia commenced in the early 17th century with the arrival of Dutch explorers. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The European population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and wealthy market economy.

Politically, Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Australia's population of nearly 26 million[7] is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.[22] Canberra is the nation's capital, while the five largest cities are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Australia's demography has been shaped by centuries of immigration, with immigrants accounting for 30% of the country's population,[23] the highest proportion among major Western nations.[24] Australia's abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade relations are crucial to the country's economy, which generates its income from various sources including services, mining exports, banking, manufacturing, agriculture and international education.[25][26][27]

Australia is a highly developed country with a high-income economy; it has the world's thirteenth-largest economy, tenth-highest per capita income and eighth-highest Human Development Index.[28] Australia is a regional power, and has the world's thirteenth-highest military expenditure.[29] Australia ranks highly in quality of life, democracy, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, safety, and political rights,[30] with all its major cities faring exceptionally in global comparative livability surveys.[31] It is a member of international groupings including the United Nations, the G20, the OECD, the WTO, ANZUS, AUKUS, Five Eyes, the Quad, APEC, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community and the Commonwealth of Nations.

  1. ^ "Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007.
    "16. Other matters – 16.3 Australian National Anthem". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015.
    "National Symbols" (PDF). Parliamentary Handbook of the Commonwealth of Australia (29th ed.). 2005 [2002]. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference language was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ a b "Religion in Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 28 June 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  4. ^ See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.
  5. ^ Collins English Dictionary. Bishopbriggs, Glasgow: HarperCollins. 2009. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-00-786171-2.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Population clock". Australian Bureau of Statistics website. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 23 July 2020. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  8. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 27 June 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  9. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: April 2022". International Monetary Fund. April 2022.
  10. ^ "Income Distribution Database". stats.oecd.org (Database). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  12. ^ Style manual for authors, editors and printers (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Australia. 2002. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-7016-3647-0.
  13. ^ "Constitution of Australia". ComLaw. 9 July 1900. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
  14. ^ "Australia's Size Compared". Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original on 24 March 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2007.
  15. ^ Korsch RJ.; et al. (2011). "Australian island arcs through time: Geodynamic implications for the Archean and Proterozoic". Gondwana Research. 19 (3): 716–734. Bibcode:2011GondR..19..716K. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.018.
  16. ^ Macey, Richard (21 January 2005). "Map from above shows Australia is a very flat place". The Sydney Morning Herald. ISSN 0312-6315. OCLC 226369741. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
  17. ^ "The Australian continent". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  18. ^ "Deserts". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  19. ^ Kelly, Karina (13 September 1995). "A Chat with Tim Flannery on Population Control". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010. "Well, Australia has by far the world's least fertile soils".
  20. ^ Grant, Cameron (August 2007). "Damaged Dirt" (PDF). The Advertiser. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2010. Australia has the oldest, most highly weathered soils on the planet.
  21. ^ Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G.; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S. Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J.; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E. A.; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin (2017). "Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago". Nature. 547 (7663): 306–310. Bibcode:2017Natur.547..306C. doi:10.1038/nature22968. hdl:2440/107043. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28726833. S2CID 205257212.
  22. ^ "Geographic Distribution of the Population". 24 May 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  23. ^ "Main Features – Australia's Population by Country of Birth". 3412.0 – Migration, Australia, 2019–20. Commonwealth of Australia. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 April 2021.
  24. ^ "United Nations Population Division | Department of Economic and Social Affairs". www.un.org. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  25. ^ Cassen, Robert (1982). Rich Country Interests and Third World Development. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7099-1930-8.
  26. ^ "Australia, wealthiest nation in the world". 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  27. ^ "Australians the world's wealthiest". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
  28. ^ Data refer mostly to the year 2017. World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 1 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017" (PDF). www.sipri.org.
  30. ^ "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
  31. ^ "Melbourne named world's most liveable city". ABC News. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 January 2022.


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