64-bit computing

In computer architecture, 64-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 64-bit (8-octet) wide. Also, 64-bit central processing unit (CPU) and arithmetic logic unit (ALU) architectures are those that are based on processor registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 64-bit microcomputers are computers in which 64-bit microprocessors are the norm. From the software perspective, 64-bit computing means the use of machine code with 64-bit virtual memory addresses. However, not all 64-bit instruction sets support full 64-bit virtual memory addresses; x86-64 and ARMv8, for example, support only 48 bits of virtual address, with the remaining 16 bits of the virtual address required to be all 0's or all 1's, and several 64-bit instruction sets support fewer than 64 bits of physical memory address.

The term 64-bit describes a generation of computers in which 64-bit processors are the norm. 64 bits is a word size that defines certain classes of computer architecture, buses, memory, and CPUs and, by extension, the software that runs on them. 64-bit CPUs have been used in supercomputers since the 1970s (Cray-1, 1975) and in reduced instruction set computers (RISC) based workstations and servers since the early 1990s, notably the MIPS R4000, R8000, and R10000, the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Alpha, the Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC, and the IBM RS64 and POWER3 and later IBM Power microprocessors. In 2003, 64-bit CPUs were introduced to the (formerly 32-bit) mainstream personal computer market in the form of x86-64 processors and the PowerPC G5, and were introduced in 2012[1] into the ARM architecture targeting smartphones and tablet computers, first sold on September 20, 2013, in the iPhone 5S powered by the ARMv8-A Apple A7 system on a chip (SoC).

A 64-bit register can hold any of 264 (over 18 quintillion or 1.8×1019) different values. The range of integer values that can be stored in 64 bits depends on the integer representation used. With the two most common representations, the range is 0 through 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 (264 − 1) for representation as an (unsigned) binary number, and −9,223,372,036,854,775,808 (−263) through 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 (263 − 1) for representation as two's complement. Hence, a processor with 64-bit memory addresses can directly access 264 bytes (16 exbibytes or EiB) of byte-addressable memory.

With no further qualification, a 64-bit computer architecture generally has integer and addressing processor registers that are 64 bits wide, allowing direct support for 64-bit data types and addresses. However, a CPU might have external data buses or address buses with different sizes from the registers, even larger (the 32-bit Pentium had a 64-bit data bus, for instance).[2]

The term may also refer to the size of low-level data types, such as 64-bit floating-point arithmetic numbers.

  1. ^ "ARM Launches Cortex-A50 Series, the World's Most Energy-Efficient 64-bit Processors" (Press release). ARM Holdings. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  2. ^ Pentium Processor User's Manual Volume 1: Pentium Processor Data Book (PDF). Intel. 1993.

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