Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese云南省 (Yúnnán Shěng)
 • Nuosuꒊꆈ or ꒊꆈꌜ (Yypnuo or Yypnuose)
 • Standard ZhuangYinznanz
 • AbbreviationYN / (Diān) or (Yún)
(clockwise from top)
Map showing the location of Yunnan Province
Map showing the location of Yunnan Province
Coordinates: 25°02′58″N 102°42′32″E / 25.04944°N 102.70889°E / 25.04944; 102.70889
Kingdom of Nanzhao738
Conquered by the Ming Empire1381–1382
Yunnan clique1915–1945
Takeover by the People's Liberation Army1951
(and largest city)
Divisions16 prefectures, 129 counties, 1565 townships
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyYunnan Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryWang Ning
 • Congress chairmanWang Ning
 • GovernorWang Yubo
 • CPPCC chairmanLiu Xiaokai
 • Total394,000 km2 (152,000 sq mi)
 • Rank8th
Highest elevation6,740 m (22,110 ft)
 • Total47,209,277
 • Rank12th
 • Density120/km2 (310/sq mi)
  • Rank24th
 • Ethnic composition
 • Languages and dialects
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN
GDP (2021)CNY 2.714 trillion
$ 420 billion (18th)[3]
 - per capitaCNY 57,882
USD 8,970 (26th)
 • growthIncrease 7.3%
HDI (2019)Increase 0.691[4]
medium · 27th
"Yunnan" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese云南
Traditional Chinese雲南
Literal meaning"South of the colorful clouds"(彩雲之南 / 彩云之南)[note 1]
Yi name
yyp nuo
Tai Lue name
Tai Lueᦍᦲᧃᧉᦓᦱᧃᧉ
jin naan
Lisu name
ye na
Tibetan name
yun nan
Northern Thai name
Northern Thaiวิเทหราช

Yunnan (UK: /jˈnæn/,[5] US: /ˌjˈnɑːn/;[6] Chinese: 云南) is a landlocked province in southwestern China. The province spans approximately 394,000 km2 (152,000 sq mi) and has a population of 48.3 million (as of 2018). The capital of the province is Kunming. The province borders the Chinese provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan, autonomous regions of Guangxi, and Tibet as well as Southeast Asian countries: Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. Yunnan is China's fourth least developed province based on disposable income per capita in 2014.[7]

Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys by as much as 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Yunnan is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan has perhaps 17,000 or more.[8] Yunnan's reserves of aluminium, lead, zinc and tin are the largest in China, and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel. Historically, the southwestern Silk Road to Bhitargarh in Bangladesh passed through modern Yunnan.

Parts of Yunnan formed the Dian Kingdom during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Han dynasty conquered the Dian Kingdom in the late 2nd century BC, establishing the Yizhou Commandery in its place. During the chaos of the Three Kingdoms period, imperial Chinese authority in Yunnan weakened, and much of the region came under the control of the Cuanman. The area was later ruled by the Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao (738–937), followed by the Bai-ruled Dali Kingdom (937–1253). After the Mongol conquest of the region in the 13th century, Yunnan was conquered and ruled by the Ming dynasty.

From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the southwestern frontier, with two major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China.[9] As with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population.[10] Major ethnic groups include Yi, Bai, Hani, Zhuang, Dai, and Miao.[11] Yunnan has also been identified as "the birthplace of tea ... the first area where humans figured out that eating tea leaves or brewing a cup could be pleasant",[12] and as the region of origin of the plant genus Cannabis.[13]

  1. ^ "Doing Business in Yunnan Province of China". Ministry of Commerce, People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. ^ GDP-2021 is a preliminary data "Home - Regional - Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS. March 1, 2022. Archived from the original on March 30, 2020. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2020-04-17.
  5. ^ "Yunnan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021.
  6. ^ "Yunnan". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  7. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference Paterson was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Lee, James (1982). "The Legacy of Immigration in Southwest China, 1250-1850" (PDF). Annals de Démographie Historique. 1982: 279–304. doi:10.3406/adh.1982.1543.
  10. ^ Wang, Ge (2016-04-18). Pains and Gains of Ethnic Multilingual Learners in China: An Ethnographic Case Study. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 9789811006616. Archived from the original on 2021-04-20. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  11. ^ Jin, Li Seielstad, Mark Xiao, Chunjie (2001). Genetic, linguistic and archaeological perspectives on human diversity in Southeast Asia. World Scientific. p. 57. ISBN 9789810247843. OCLC 897003738.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Fuller, Thomas (2008-04-21). "A Tea From the Jungle Enriches a Placid Village". The New York Times. New York. p. A8. Archived from the original on 2017-02-14. Retrieved 2020-02-13.
  13. ^ Osterberger, Elisabeth; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Jovanovic, Dijana; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes (2022-04-01). "The origin of the genus Cannabis". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 69 (4): 1439–1449. doi:10.1007/s10722-021-01309-y. ISSN 1573-5109. S2CID 245589100.

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