Vocal sac

A fully distended vocal sac in an Australian red-eyed tree frog (Litoria chloris)
Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia) with an inflated vocal sac
Marsh Frog without inflated vocal sac
Marsh Frog with partially inflated vocal sac
Marsh Frog with inflated vocal sac

The vocal sac is the flexible membrane of skin possessed by most male frogs and toads. The purpose of the vocal sac is usually as an amplification of their mating or advertisement call. The presence or development of the vocal sac is one way of externally determining the sex of a frog or toad in many species; taking frogs as an example;

The vocal sac is open to the mouth cavity of the frog, with two slits on either side of the tongue. To call, the frog inflates its lungs and shuts its nose and mouth.[clarification needed] Air is then expelled from the lungs, through the larynx, and into the vocal sac. The vibrations of the larynx emits a sound, which resonates on the elastic membrane of the vocal sac.[1] The resonance causes the sound to be amplified and allows the call to carry further. Muscles within the body wall force the air back and forth between the lungs and vocal sac.

  1. ^ Purgue, Alejandro. "Sound radiation and post-glottal filtering in frogs: Vocal Sac Resonators Revisited". acoustics.org. Acoustical Society of America. Retrieved 13 May 2019.

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