Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
Motto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc
"Independence – Freedom – Happiness"
Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca
"Army March"
Location of Vietnam (green)

in ASEAN (dark grey)

21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850
Largest cityHo Chi Minh City
10°48′N 106°39′E / 10.800°N 106.650°E / 10.800; 106.650
Official languageVietnamese[1]
Ethnic groups
Viet (colloquial)
GovernmentSocialist republic
Nguyễn Phú Trọng
• President
Võ Văn Thưởng
Phạm Minh Chính
Vương Đình Huệ
LegislatureNational Assembly
• Nguyễn's unification
25 August 1883
2 September 1945
21 July 1954
30 April 1975
2 July 1976
18 December 1986
28 November 2013[a]
• Total
331,212 km2 (127,882 sq mi) (66th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
100,000,000[5] (15th)
• 2019 census
• Density
295.0/km2 (764.0/sq mi) (29th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.450 trillion[6] (26th)
• Per capita
Increase $14,458[6] (103th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $449.094 billion[6] (34th)
• Per capita
Increase $4,475[6] (116th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 35.7[7]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.703[8]
high · 115th
CurrencyVietnamese đồng (₫) (VND)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (Vietnam Standard Time)
Driving sideright
Calling code+84
ISO 3166 codeVN

Vietnam[b] (Vietnamese: Việt Nam, [vîət nāːm] ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV),[c] is a country at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 331,212 square kilometres (127,882 sq mi) and a population of over 100 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country. Vietnam shares land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. It shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea. Its capital is Hanoi and its largest city is Ho Chi Minh City (commonly referred to by its former name, Saigon).

Vietnam was inhabited by the Paleolithic age, with states established in the first millennium BC on the Red River Delta in modern-day northern Vietnam. The Han dynasty annexed Northern and Central Vietnam under Chinese rule from 111 BC, until the first dynasty emerged in 939. Successive monarchical dynasties absorbed Chinese influences through Confucianism and Buddhism, and expanded southward to the Mekong Delta, conquering Champa. During most of the 17th and 18th centuries, Vietnam was effectively divided into two domains of Đàng Trong and Đàng Ngoài. The Nguyễn—the last imperial dynasty—surrendered to France in 1883. In 1887, its territory was integrated into French Indochina as three separate regions. In the immediate aftermath of World War II, the nationalist coalition Viet Minh, led by the communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh, launched the August Revolution and declared Vietnam's independence in 1945.

Vietnam went through prolonged warfare in the 20th century. After World War II, France returned to reclaim colonial power in the First Indochina War, from which Vietnam emerged victorious in 1954. As a result of the treaties signed between the Viet Minh and France, Vietnam was also separated into two parts. The Vietnam War began shortly after, between the communist North, supported by the Soviet Union and China, and the anti-communist South, supported by the United States. Upon the North Vietnamese victory in 1975, Vietnam reunified as a unitary socialist state under the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) in 1976. An ineffective planned economy, a trade embargo by the West, and wars with Cambodia and China crippled the country further. In 1986, the CPV initiated economic and political reforms similar to the Chinese economic reform, transforming the country to a socialist-oriented market economy. The reforms facilitated Vietnamese reintegration into the global economy and politics.

A developing country with a lower-middle-income economy, Vietnam is nonetheless one of the fastest-growing economies of the 21st century. Vietnam has high levels of corruption, censorship, environmental issues and a poor human rights record; the country ranks among the lowest in international measurements of civil liberties, freedom of the press, and freedom of religion and ethnic minorities. It is part of international and intergovernmental institutions including the ASEAN, the APEC, the CPTPP, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OIF, and the WTO. It has assumed a seat on the United Nations Security Council twice.

  1. ^ "Vietnam". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 18 April 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  2. ^ a b General Statistics Office of Vietnam 2019.
  3. ^ "2019 Report on International Religious Freedom: Vietnam". U.S. Department of State.
  4. ^ Việt Nam News 2014.
  5. ^ "Tổng cục Thống kê: Dân số Việt Nam đã vượt 100 triệu người vào tháng 4" [General Statistics Office: Vietnam's population exceeded 100 million people in April]. Zing News. 19 June 2023. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023.
  6. ^ a b c d International Monetary Fund.
  7. ^ World Bank 2018c.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2023.

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