Systema Naturae

Systema Naturæ
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.[1]
AuthorCarl Linnaeus
(Carl von Linné)
GenreBiological classification
Publication date
1735 (1735)
LC ClassQH43 .S21

Systema Naturae (originally in Latin written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann,[2] Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".

The tenth edition of this book (1758) is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature.[3] In 1766–1768 Linnaeus published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and titled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 20th century, zoologists have commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series.[4][5][6]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.
  2. ^ Windelspecht (2002), p. 28.
  3. ^ Gordh, Gordon; Beardsley, John W. (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Bellows, T. S.; Fisher, T. W. (eds.). Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN 978-0-12-257305-7.
  4. ^ "Sherborn, C. D. 1902". Index Animalium.
  5. ^ "Neave, S. A. 1939–1940, updated". Nomenclator Zoologicus.
  6. ^ Opinions and Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 8: 167–178, also p. 318 in ICZN 1987. Archived 2010-06-25 at the Wayback Machine Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. – pp. 1–366. London. (The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature).

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