Sympatric speciation

In sympatric speciation, reproductive isolation evolves within a population without the aid of geographic barriers.

Sympatric speciation is the evolution of a new species from a surviving ancestral species while both continue to inhabit the same geographic region. In evolutionary biology and biogeography, sympatric and sympatry are terms referring to organisms whose ranges overlap so that they occur together at least in some places. If these organisms are closely related (e.g. sister species), such a distribution may be the result of sympatric speciation. Etymologically, sympatry is derived from the Greek roots συν ("together") and πατρίς ("homeland").[1] The term was coined by Edward Bagnall Poulton in 1904, who explains the derivation.[1]

Sympatric speciation is one of three traditional geographic modes of speciation.[2][3] Allopatric speciation is the evolution of species caused by the geographic isolation of two or more populations of a species. In this case, divergence is facilitated by the absence of gene flow. Parapatric speciation is the evolution of geographically adjacent populations into distinct species. In this case, divergence occurs despite limited interbreeding where the two diverging groups come into contact. In sympatric speciation, there is no geographic constraint to interbreeding. These categories are special cases of a continuum from zero (sympatric) to complete (allopatric) spatial segregation of diverging groups.[3]

In multicellular eukaryotic organisms, sympatric speciation is a plausible process that is known to occur, but the frequency with which it occurs is not known.[4] In bacteria, however, the analogous process (defined as "the origin of new bacterial species that occupy definable ecological niches") might be more common because bacteria are less constrained by the homogenizing effects of sexual reproduction and are prone to comparatively dramatic and rapid genetic change through horizontal gene transfer.[5]

  1. ^ a b Poulton, E. B. (1904). "What is a species?". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London. 1903: 77–116.
  2. ^ Futuyma, D. J. 2009. Evolution (2nd edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc.[page needed]
  3. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, B. M.; Fordyce, J. A.; Gavrilets, S. (2008). "What, if anything, is sympatric speciation?". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 21 (6): 1452–9. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01611.x. PMID 18823452. S2CID 8721116.
  4. ^ Bolnick, Daniel I.; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M. (2007). "Sympatric Speciation: Models and Empirical Evidence". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 38: 459–87. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095804.
  5. ^ King, Stansfield, Mulligan (2006). Dictionary of Genetics (7th ed.). Oxford University Press.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)[page needed]

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