Blausen 0785 Scoliosis 01.png
SpecialtyOrthopedic surgery
SymptomsSideways curve in the back[2]
Usual onset10–20 years old[2]
CausesUsually unknown[3]
Risk factorsFamily history, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, tumors such as neurofibromatosis[2]
Diagnostic methodX-ray[2]
TreatmentWatchful waiting, bracing, exercises, surgery[2][4]

Scoliosis is a condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.[2] The curve is usually "S"- or "C"-shaped over three dimensions.[2][7] In some, the degree of curve is stable, while in others, it increases over time.[3] Mild scoliosis does not typically cause problems, but more severe cases can affect breathing and movement.[3][8] Pain is usually present in adults, and can worsen with age.[9]

The cause of most cases is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[3] Risk factors include other affected family members.[2] It can also occur due to another condition such as muscle spasms, cerebral palsy, Marfan syndrome, and tumors such as neurofibromatosis.[2] Diagnosis is confirmed with X-rays.[2] Scoliosis is typically classified as either structural in which the curve is fixed, or functional in which the underlying spine is normal.[2]

Treatment depends on the degree of curve, location, and cause.[2] The age of the patient is also important, since some treatments are ineffective in adults, who are no longer growing. Minor curves may simply be watched periodically.[2] Treatments may include bracing, specific exercises, posture checking, and surgery.[2][4] The brace must be fitted to the person and used daily until growing stops.[2] Specific exercises, such as exercises that focus on the core, may be used to try to decrease the risk of worsening.[4] They may be done alone or along with other treatments such as bracing.[10][11] Evidence that chiropractic manipulation, dietary supplements, or exercises can prevent the condition from worsening is weak.[2][12] However, exercise is still recommended due to its other health benefits.[2]

Scoliosis occurs in about 3% of people.[5] It most commonly develops between the ages of ten and twenty.[2] Females typically are more severely affected than males with a ratio of 4:1.[2][3] The term is from Ancient Greek σκολίωσις (skolíōsis), which means "a bending".[13]

  1. ^ "Scoliosis". Merriam Webster. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents". NIAMS. December 2015. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis". Genetics Home Reference. September 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Negrini S, Donzelli S, Aulisa AG, Czaprowski D, Schreiber S, de Mauroy JC, et al. (2018). "2016 SOSORT guidelines: orthopaedic and rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth". Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders. 13: 3. doi:10.1186/s13013-017-0145-8. PMC 5795289. PMID 29435499.
  5. ^ a b Shakil H, Iqbal ZA, Al-Ghadir AH (2014). "Scoliosis: review of types of curves, etiological theories and conservative treatment". Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation. 27 (2): 111–115. doi:10.3233/bmr-130438. PMID 24284269.
  6. ^ "Scoliosis - Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment". Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  7. ^ Illés TS, Lavaste F, Dubousset JF (April 2019). "The third dimension of scoliosis: The forgotten axial plane". Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research. 105 (2): 351–359. doi:10.1016/j.otsr.2018.10.021. PMID 30665877.
  8. ^ Yang S, Andras LM, Redding GJ, Skaggs DL (January 2016). "Early-Onset Scoliosis: A Review of History, Current Treatment, and Future Directions". Pediatrics. 137 (1): e20150709. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-0709. PMID 26644484. S2CID 557560.
  9. ^ Agabegi SS, Kazemi N, Sturm PF, Mehlman CT (December 2015). "Natural History of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Skeletally Mature Patients: A Critical Review". The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 23 (12): 714–723. doi:10.5435/jaaos-d-14-00037. PMID 26510624. S2CID 6735774.
  10. ^ Berdishevsky H, Lebel VA, Bettany-Saltikov J, Rigo M, Lebel A, Hennes A, et al. (2016). "Physiotherapy scoliosis-specific exercises - a comprehensive review of seven major schools". Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders. 11: 20. doi:10.1186/s13013-016-0076-9. PMC 4973373. PMID 27525315.
  11. ^ Park JH, Jeon HS, Park HW (June 2018). "Effects of the Schroth exercise on idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis". European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 54 (3): 440–449. doi:10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04461-6. PMID 28976171. S2CID 39497372.
  12. ^ Thompson JY, Williamson EM, Williams MA, Heine PJ, Lamb SE (June 2019). "Effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis compared with other non-surgical interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Physiotherapy. 105 (2): 214–234. doi:10.1016/ PMID 30824243. S2CID 73471547.
  13. ^ "scoliosis". Unabridged (Online). n.d. Retrieved 12 August 2016. Archived 16 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

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