Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionFAD of the Inoceramid Bivalve Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus
Lower boundary GSSPOlazagutia, Spain
42°52′00″N 2°11′48″W / 42.8668°N 2.1968°W / 42.8668; -2.1968
Lower GSSP ratifiedJanuary 2013[2]
Upper boundary definitionBase of Chron C33r[3]
Upper boundary GSSPBottaccione, Gubbio, Italy[3]
43°21′46″N 12°34′58″E / 43.3627°N 12.5828°E / 43.3627; 12.5828[4]
Upper GSSP ratifiedOctober 2022[5]

The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous Epoch or Upper Cretaceous Series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya (million years ago) and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.[6]

  1. ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale".
  2. ^ Lamolda, M.; Paul, C.; Peryt, D.; Pons, J. (March 2014). "The Global Boundary Stratotype and Section Point (GSSP) for the base of the Santonian Stage, "Cantera de Margas", Olazagutia, northern Spain". Episodes. 37 (1): 2–13. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2014/v37i1/001. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  3. ^ a b Jarvis, Ian; et al. (2023). "Carbon isotopes, palynology and stratigraphy of the Santonian–Campanian boundary: The GSSP auxiliary sections, Seaford Head (England) and Bocieniec (Poland), and correlation between the Boreal and Tethyan realms". Cretaceous Research. 143: 105415. Bibcode:2023CrRes.14305415J. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105415. S2CID 253436620. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  4. ^ Gale, Andy; Batenburg, Sietske; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dubicka, Zofia; Erba, Elisabetta; Falzoni, Francesca; Haggart, Jim; Hasegawa, Takishi; Ifrim, Christina; Jarvis, Ian; Jenkyns, Hugh; Jurowska, Agata; Kennedy, Jim; Maron, Matteo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Pearce, Martin; Petrizzo, Maria Rose; Premoli-Silva, Isabella; Thibault, Nicolas; Voigt, Silke; Wagreich, Michael; Walaszczyk, Irek (1 February 2023). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Campanian Stage at Bottaccione (Gubbio, Italy) and its Auxiliary Sections: Seaford Head (UK), Bocieniec (Poland), Postalm (Austria), Smoky Hill, Kansas (U.S.A), Tepayac (Mexico)". Episodes: 6. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2022/022048. hdl:2434/968946. S2CID 256539746. Retrieved 27 March 2023.
  5. ^ "Campanian GSSP Ratified by IUGS". Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy. International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  6. ^ Gradstein et al. (2004)

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