San Marino

Republic of San Marino[1][2]
Anthem: Inno Nazionale della Repubblica
"National Anthem of the Republic"
Location of San Marino in Europe
Location of San Marino (green)

in Europe (agate grey)  –  [Legend]

CapitalSan Marino
43°56′N 12°26′E / 43.933°N 12.433°E / 43.933; 12.433
Largest settlementDogana
43°58′53″N 12°29′22″E / 43.98139°N 12.48944°E / 43.98139; 12.48944
Official languagesItalian[3]
Other languagesRomagnol
see Religion in San Marino
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary diarchic directorial republic
Luca Beccari
LegislatureGrand and General Council
• From the Roman Empire
3 September 301 (traditional)
  • 8 October 1600
  • 12 July 1978
    (Declaration of Citizen Rights)
• Total
61.2 km2 (23.6 sq mi)[1] (191st)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
33,600[4] (191st)
• Density
520/km2 (1,346.8/sq mi) (23rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.45 billion[5] (194th)
• Per capita
Increase $72,070 [5] (10th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.62 billion[5] (192nd)
• Per capita
Increase $47,700[5] (20th)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.853[6]
very high · 44th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+01 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+378 (+39 0549 calling via Italy)
ISO 3166 codeSM
Sources: [1][7]

San Marino (/ˌsæn məˈrn/ (listen), Italian: [sam maˈriːno]), officially the Republic of San Marino[1][2][8] (Italian: Repubblica di San Marino; Romagnol: Ripóbblica d' San Marein), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino[9] (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is a European microstate and country enclaved by Italy.[10] Located on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains, San Marino is the fifth-smallest country in the world[11] and covers a land area of just over 61 km2 (23+12 sq mi), with a population of 33,562.[12]

San Marino is a landlocked country; however, its northeastern end is within ten kilometres (six miles) of the Italian city of Rimini on the Adriatic coast. The nearest airport is also in Italy. The country's capital city, the City of San Marino, is located atop Monte Titano, while its largest settlement is Dogana within the largest municipality of Serravalle. San Marino's official language is Italian.

The country derives its name from Saint Marinus, a stonemason from the then-Roman island of Rab in present-day Croatia. Born in AD 275, Marinus participated in the rebuilding of Rimini's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates. Marinus then went on to found an independently ruled monastic community on Monte Titano in AD 301; thus, San Marino lays claim to being the oldest extant sovereign state, as well as the oldest constitutional republic.[13]

Uniquely, San Marino's constitution dictates that its democratically elected legislature, the Grand and General Council, must elect two heads of state every six months. Known as captains regent, the two heads of state serve concurrently and equal powers until their term expires after six months.

The country's economy is mainly based on finance, industry, services, retail, and tourism. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world in GDP per capita, with a figure comparable to the most developed European regions.[1] Its health care system ranked 3rd in the first ever World Health Organization analysis of the world's health systems.[14] Despite this fact, ranking 44th, its Human Development Index score is the lowest in Western Europe.

  1. ^ a b c d e San Marino. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  2. ^ a b "San Marino". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  3. ^ "San Marino è". GOV.SM. Repubblica di San Marino. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  4. ^ "San Marino – Population – Upeceds". Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". International Monetary Fund. October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  6. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  7. ^ "San Marino" (PDF). UNECE Statistics Programme. UNECE. 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  9. ^ "FACTBOX: Five facts: Most Serene Republic of San Marino". Reuters. 17 August 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  10. ^ "The Republic of San Marino: Italy's Mountaintop Microstate". Round the World in 30 Days. 14 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ "Informazioni sulla popolazione – Repubblica di San Marino, portale ufficiale". Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  13. ^ "Europe's Micro-States: (04) San Marino". Deutsche Welle. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  14. ^ The World Health Report 2000 (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization. June 2000. p. 200. Retrieved 8 May 2023.

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