Phylogenetic tree

BacteriaArchaeaEukaryotaAquifexThermotogaBacteroides–CytophagaPlanctomyces"Cyanobacteria"ProteobacteriaSpirochetesGram-positivesChloroflexiThermoproteus–PyrodictiumThermococcus celerMethanococcusMethanobacteriumMethanosarcinaHaloarchaeaEntamoebaeSlime moldsAnimalsFungiPlantsCiliatesFlagellatesTrichomonadsMicrosporidiaDiplomonads
A phylogenetic tree based on rRNA genes,[citation needed] showing the three life domains: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. The black branch at the bottom of the phylogenetic tree connects the three branches of living organisms to the last universal common ancestor. In the absence of an outgroup, the root is speculative.
A highly resolved, automatically generated tree of life, based on completely sequenced genomes[1][2]

A phylogenetic tree, phylogeny or evolutionary tree is a graphical representation which shows the evolutionary history between a set of species or taxa during a specific time.[3][4] In other words, it is a branching diagram or a tree showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics. In evolutionary biology, all life on Earth is theoretically part of a single phylogenetic tree, indicating common ancestry. Phylogenetics is the study of phylogenetic trees. The main challenge is to find a phylogenetic tree representing optimal evolutionary ancestry between a set of species or taxa. Computational phylogenetics (also phylogeny inference) focuses on the algorithms involved in finding optimal phylogenetic tree in the phylogenetic landscape.[3][4]

Phylogenetic trees may be rooted or unrooted. In a rooted phylogenetic tree, each node with descendants represents the inferred most recent common ancestor of those descendants,[5] and the edge lengths in some trees may be interpreted as time estimates. Each node is called a taxonomic unit. Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units, as they cannot be directly observed. Trees are useful in fields of biology such as bioinformatics, systematics, and phylogenetics. Unrooted trees illustrate only the relatedness of the leaf nodes and do not require the ancestral root to be known or inferred.

  1. ^ Letunic, Ivica; Bork, Peer (1 January 2007). "Interactive Tree Of Life (iTOL): an online tool for phylogenetic tree display and annotation" (PDF). Bioinformatics. 23 (1): 127–128. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btl529. ISSN 1367-4803. PMID 17050570. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 29, 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-21.
  2. ^ Ciccarelli, F. D.; Doerks, T.; Von Mering, C.; Creevey, C. J.; Snel, B.; Bork, P. (2006). "Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life" (PDF). Science. 311 (5765): 1283–1287. Bibcode:2006Sci...311.1283C. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126/science.1123061. PMID 16513982. S2CID 1615592.
  3. ^ a b Khalafvand, Tyler (2015). Finding Structure in the Phylogeny Search Space. Dalhousie University.
  4. ^ a b Felsenstein J. (2004). Inferring Phylogenies Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA.
  5. ^ Kinene, T.; Wainaina, J.; Maina, S.; Boykin, L. (21 April 2016). "Rooting Trees, Methods for". Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology: 489–493. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800049-6.00215-8. ISBN 9780128004265. PMC 7149615.

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