|Acids and bases|
In chemistry, pH (// pee-AYCH), also referred to as acidity or basicity, historically denotes "potential of hydrogen" (or "power of hydrogen"). It is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Acidic solutions (solutions with higher concentrations of hydrogen (H+) ions) are measured to have lower pH values than basic or alkaline solutions.
where [H+] is the equilibrium molar concentration (mol/L) of H+ in the solution. At 25 °C (77°F), solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic. Solutions with a pH of 7 at 25 °C are neutral (i.e. have the same concentration of H+ ions as OH− ions, i.e. the same as pure water). The neutral value of the pH depends on the temperature and is lower than 7 if the temperature increases above 25 °C. The pH range is commonly given as zero to 14, but a pH value can be less than 0 for very concentrated strong acids or greater than 14 for very concentrated strong bases.
The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode. The pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter or a color-changing indicator. Measurements of pH are important in chemistry, agronomy, medicine, water treatment, and many other applications.
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