Temporal range:
Late SilurianPresent,
Example of Osteichthyes: Queensland lungfish and West Indian Ocean coelacanth (two Sarcopterygii), Iridescent shark and American black sturgeon (two Actinopterygii)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Clade: Eugnathostomata
Clade: Teleostomi
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Huxley, 1880

Osteichthyes (/ˌɒstˈɪkθi.z/), commonly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse superclass of vertebrates, that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue. They can be contrasted with the Chondrichthyes, which have skeletons primarily composed of cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species.[2] It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 425 million years old,[1] which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes.[3]

Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes the terrestrial tetrapods that evolved from lobe-finned fish. Until recently, the view of most ichthyologists has been that Osteichthyes were paraphyletic and include only fishes.[4] However, since 2013 widely cited ichthyology papers have been published with phylogenetic trees that treat the Osteichthyes as a clade including tetrapods.[5][6][7][4]

  1. ^ a b Zhao, W.; Zhang, X.; Jia, G.; Shen, Y.; Zhu, M. (2021). "The Silurian-Devonian boundary in East Yunnan (South China) and the minimum constraint for the lungfish-tetrapod split". Science China Earth Sciences. 64 (10): 1784–1797. Bibcode:2021ScChD..64.1784Z. doi:10.1007/s11430-020-9794-8. S2CID 236438229.
  2. ^ Bony fishes Archived 2013-06-06 at the Wayback Machine SeaWorld. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  3. ^ "Jaws, Teeth of Earliest Bony Fish Discovered".
  4. ^ a b Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). "Teleostomi". Fishes of the World (5th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 96, 101. doi:10.1002/9781119174844. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  5. ^ Betancur-R, Ricardo; et al. (2013). "The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes". PLOS Currents Tree of Life. 5 (Edition 1). doi:10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288. PMC 3644299. PMID 23653398.
  6. ^ Betancur-R, R., Wiley, E.O., Arratia, G., Acero, A., Bailly, N., Miya, M., Lecointre, G. and Orti, G. (2017) "Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes". BMC evolutionary biology, 17(1): 162. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3.
  7. ^ Hughes, L.C., Ortí, G., Huang, Y., Sun, Y., Baldwin, C.C., Thompson, A.W., Arcila, D., Betancur-R, R., Li, C., Becker, L. and Bellora, N. (2018) "Comprehensive phylogeny of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) based on transcriptomic and genomic data". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(24): 6249–6254. doi:10.1073/pnas.1719358115.

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