Measure of pressure exerted by large dissolved molecules in biological fluids
Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic-pressure, is a type of osmotic pressure induced by the plasma proteins, notably albumin, in a blood vessel's plasma (or any other body fluid such as blood and lymph) that causes a pull on fluid back into the capillary. Participating colloids displace water molecules, thus creating a relative water molecule deficit with water molecules moving back into the circulatory system within the lower venous pressure end of capillaries.
It has the opposing effect of both hydrostaticblood pressure pushing water and small molecules out of the blood into the interstitial spaces within the arterial end of capillaries and interstitial colloidal osmotic pressure. These interacting factors determine the partition balancing of extracellular water between the blood plasma and outside the blood stream.
Oncotic pressure strongly affects the physiological function of the circulatory system. It is suspected to have a major effect on the pressure across the glomerular filter. However, this concept has been strongly criticised and attention has been shifted to the impact of the intravascular glycocalyx layer as the major player.
^Moman, Rajat N.; Gupta, Nishant; Varacallo, Matthew (2021), "Physiology, Albumin", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID29083605, retrieved 2021-12-09