New South Wales

New South Wales
  • The First State
  • The Premier State
Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Latin)
(English: Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine)
New South Wales in Australia.svg
Location of New South Wales in Australia
Coordinates: 32°S 147°E / 32°S 147°E / -32; 147Coordinates: 32°S 147°E / 32°S 147°E / -32; 147
Before federationColony of New South Wales
Establishment26 January 1788
Responsible government6 June 1856
Federation1 January 1901
Named forWales
and largest city
33°52′04″S 151°12′36″E / 33.86778°S 151.21000°E / -33.86778; 151.21000
Administration128 local government areas
• Monarch
Charles III
• Governor
Margaret Beazley
• Premier
Chris Minns (Labor)
LegislatureParliament of New South Wales
Legislative Council
Legislative Assembly
JudiciarySupreme Court of New South Wales
Parliament of Australia
• Senate
12 senators (of 76)
47 seats (of 151)
• Total
809,952 km2 (312,724 sq mi) (5th)
• Land
801,150 km2 (309,330 sq mi)
• Water
8,802 km2 (3,398 sq mi)
Highest elevation2,228 m (7,310 ft)
• March 2022 estimate
Increase 8,130,115[1] (1st)
• Density
8.3/km2 (21.5/sq mi) (3rd)
GSP2020 estimate
• Total
Increase AU$624.9 billion[2] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase AU$76,876 (4th)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.952[3]
very high · 3rd
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
Postal abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeAU-NSW
(Dacelo gigas)
FishBlue groper
(Achoerodus viridis)
(Telopea speciosissima)[4]
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Colour(s)Sky blue
(Pantone 291)[5]
FossilMandageria fairfaxi
MineralBlack opal

New South Wales (commonly abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory are enclaves within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2021, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million,[1] making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.3 million, live in the Greater Sydney area.[6]

The Colony of New South Wales was founded as a British penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825. The colony then also included the island territories of Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became the various states and territories of Australia. However, the Swan River Colony was never administered as part of New South Wales.

Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory.

  1. ^ a b "National, state and territory population – March 2021". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 26 September 2022. Archived from the original on 21 November 2022. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  2. ^ "5220.0 – Australian National Accounts: State Accounts, 2019–20". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 November 2020. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  4. ^ "Floral Emblem of New South Wales". Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  5. ^ "New South Wales". [email protected]. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  6. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2016–17: Main Features". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017.

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