Neopterygii


Neopterygii
Temporal range:
Siganus corallinus Brest.jpg
Siganus corallinus (a teleost)
Lepisosteus oculatus Knochenhecht.JPG
Lepisosteus oculatus (a holostean)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
(unranked): Actinopteri
Subclass: Neopterygii
Regan, 1923[2]
Infraclasses

Holostei
Teleostei
See text for orders.

Neopterygii (from Greek νέος neos 'new' and πτέρυξ pteryx 'fin') is a subclass of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii). Neopterygii includes the Holostei and the Teleostei, of which the latter comprise the vast majority of extant fishes, and over half of all living vertebrate species.[3] While living holosteans include only freshwater taxa, teleosts are diverse in both freshwater and marine environments. Many new species of teleosts are scientifically described each year.[3]

Fossil evidence for crown group neopterygians goes back at least 251 million years to the Induan stage of the Early Triassic epoch,[4][5][6] however, one study incorporating morphological data from fossils and molecular data from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, places this divergence date at least 284 mya (million years ago), during the Artinskian stage of the Early Permian.[1] Another study suggests an even earlier split (360 myr ago, near the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary).[7]

Vertebrates

Jawless fish Flussneunauge.jpg (118 living species: hagfish, lampreys)

Jawed vertebrates

Cartilaginous fishes White shark (Duane Raver).png (>1,100 living species: sharks, rays, chimaeras)

Bony fishes
Lobe-fins
Rhipidistia

Tetrapoda Salamandra salamandra (white background).jpg (>30,000 living species: amphibians, mammals, reptiles, birds)

Dipnoi Chinle fish Arganodus cropped cropped.png (6 living species: lungfish)

Actinistia Coelacanth flipped.png (2 living species: coelacanths)

Ray-fins

Cladistia Cuvier-105-Polyptère.jpg (14 living species: bichirs, reedfish)

Actinopteri

Chondrostei Atlantic sturgeon flipped.jpg (27 living species: sturgeons, paddlefish)

Neopterygii Common carp (white background).jpg (>32,000 living species)

  1. ^ a b Hurley, Imogen A.; Mueller, Rachael Lockridge; Dunn, Katherine A. (21 November 2006). "A new time-scale for ray-finned fish evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 274 (1609): 489–498. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3749. PMC 1766393. PMID 17476768.
  2. ^ Regan, C. Tate (1923). "The Skeleton of Lepidosteus, with remarks on the origin and evolution of the lower Neopterygian Fishes". Journal of Zoology. 93 (2): 445–461. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1923.tb02191.x.
  3. ^ a b Nelson, Joseph, S. (2016). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-1-118-34233-6.
  4. ^ Olsen, P.E. (1984). "The skull and pectoral girdle of the parasemionotid fish Watsonulus eugnathoides from the Early Triassic Sakamena Group of Madagascar, with comments on the relationships of the holostean fishes". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 4 (3): 481–499. doi:10.1080/02724634.1984.10012024.
  5. ^ Gardiner, B. G. (1993). "Osteichtythyes: basal actinopterygians". Fossil Record II.
  6. ^ Grande, Lance; Bemis, William E. (1998). "A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Study of Amiid Fishes (Amiidae) Based on Comparative Skeletal Anatomy. an Empirical Search for Interconnected Patterns of Natural History". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18 (Supplementary 1): 1–696. doi:10.1080/02724634.1998.10011114.
  7. ^ Thomas J. Near; et al. (2012). "Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification". PNAS. 109 (34): 13698–13703. doi:10.1073/pnas.1206625109. PMC 3427055. PMID 22869754.

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