Mutation


A red tulip exhibiting a partially yellow petal due to a mutation in its genes
Mutation with double bloom in the Langheck Nature Reserve near Nittel, Germany

In biology, a mutation is an alteration in the nucleic acid sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA.[1] Viral genomes contain either DNA or RNA. Mutations result from errors during DNA or viral replication, mitosis, or meiosis or other types of damage to DNA (such as pyrimidine dimers caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation), which then may undergo error-prone repair (especially microhomology-mediated end joining),[2] cause an error during other forms of repair,[3][4] or cause an error during replication (translesion synthesis). Mutations may also result from insertion or deletion of segments of DNA due to mobile genetic elements.[5][6][7]

Mutations may or may not produce detectable changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity. Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, providing the raw material on which evolutionary forces such as natural selection can act.

Mutation can result in many different types of change in sequences. Mutations in genes can have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly or completely. Mutations can also occur in non-genic regions. A 2007 study on genetic variations between different species of Drosophila suggested that, if a mutation changes a protein produced by a gene, the result is likely to be harmful, with an estimated 70% of amino acid polymorphisms that have damaging effects, and the remainder being either neutral or marginally beneficial.[8] Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on genes, organisms have mechanisms such as DNA repair to prevent or correct mutations by reverting the mutated sequence back to its original state.[5]

  1. ^ "mutation | Learn Science at Scitable". Nature. Nature Education. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  2. ^ Sfeir A, Symington LS (November 2015). "Microhomology-Mediated End Joining: A Back-up Survival Mechanism or Dedicated Pathway?". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 40 (11): 701–714. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2015.08.006. PMC 4638128. PMID 26439531.
  3. ^ Chen J, Miller BF, Furano AV (April 2014). "Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA". eLife. 3: e02001. doi:10.7554/elife.02001. PMC 3999860. PMID 24843013.
  4. ^ Rodgers K, McVey M (January 2016). "Error-Prone Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 231 (1): 15–24. doi:10.1002/jcp.25053. PMC 4586358. PMID 26033759.
  5. ^ a b Bertram JS (December 2000). "The molecular biology of cancer". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 21 (6): 167–223. doi:10.1016/S0098-2997(00)00007-8. PMID 11173079. S2CID 24155688.
  6. ^ Aminetzach YT, Macpherson JM, Petrov DA (July 2005). "Pesticide resistance via transposition-mediated adaptive gene truncation in Drosophila". Science. 309 (5735): 764–7. Bibcode:2005Sci...309..764A. doi:10.1126/science.1112699. PMID 16051794. S2CID 11640993.
  7. ^ Burrus V, Waldor MK (June 2004). "Shaping bacterial genomes with integrative and conjugative elements". Research in Microbiology. 155 (5): 376–86. doi:10.1016/j.resmic.2004.01.012. PMID 15207870.
  8. ^ Sawyer SA, Parsch J, Zhang Z, Hartl DL (April 2007). "Prevalence of positive selection among nearly neutral amino acid replacements in Drosophila". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (16): 6504–10. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.6504S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701572104. PMC 1871816. PMID 17409186.

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