Temporal range:
Bonnet macaque Macaca radiata Mangaon, Maharashtra, India
Bonnet macaque Macaca radiata Mangaon, Maharashtra, India
Scientific classificationEdit this classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Groups included
Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa

Monkey is a common name that may refer to most mammals of the infraorder Simiiformes, also known as the simians. Traditionally, all animals in the group now known as simians are counted as monkeys except the apes, which constitutes an incomplete paraphyletic grouping; however, in the broader sense based on cladistics, apes (Hominoidea) are also included, making the terms monkeys and simians synonyms in regards to their scope.[citation needed][3]

In 1812, Geoffroy grouped the apes and the Cercopithecidae group of monkeys together and established the name Catarrhini, "Old World monkeys", ("singes de l'Ancien Monde" in French).[3][4][5] The extant sister of the Catarrhini in the monkey ("singes") group is the Platyrrhini (New World monkeys).[3] Some nine million years before the divergence between the Cercopithecidae and the apes,[6] the Platyrrhini emerged within "monkeys" by migration to South America from Afro-Arabia (the Old World),[citation needed][7][8] likely by ocean.[9][10][better source needed] Apes are thus deep in the tree of extant and extinct monkeys, and any of the apes is distinctly closer related to the Cercopithecidae than the Platyrrhini are.

Many monkey species are tree-dwelling (arboreal), although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are mainly active during the day (diurnal). Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, especially the Old World monkeys.

Within suborder Haplorhini, the simians are a sister group to the tarsiers – the two members diverged some 70 million years ago.[11] New World monkeys and catarrhine monkeys emerged within the simians roughly 35 million years ago. Old World monkeys and apes emerged within the catarrhine monkeys about 25 million years ago. Extinct basal simians such as Aegyptopithecus or Parapithecus (35–32 million years ago) are also considered monkeys by primatologists.[12][9][13][14][15][16]

Lemurs, lorises, and galagos are not monkeys, but strepsirrhine primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). The simians' sister group, the tarsiers, are also haplorhine primates; however, they are also not monkeys.

Apes emerged within monkeys as sister of the Cercopithecidae in the Catarrhini, so cladistically they are monkeys as well. However, there has been resistance to directly designate apes (and thus humans) as monkeys, so "Old World monkey" may be taken to mean either the Cercopithecoidea (not including apes) or the Catarrhini (including apes).[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] That apes are monkeys was already realized by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in the 18th century.[26] Linnaeus placed this group in 1758 together with the tarsiers, in a single genus "Simia" (sans Homo), an ensemble now recognised as the Haplorhini.[27]

Monkeys, including apes, can be distinguished from other primates by having only two pectoral nipples, a pendulous penis, and a lack of sensory whiskers.[28][better source needed]

  1. ^ Fleagle, J.; Gilbert, C. Rowe, N.; Myers, M. (eds.). "Primate evolution". All the World's Primates. Primate Conservation, Inc. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
  2. ^ Groves 2008, pp. 92–93.
  3. ^ a b c Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, M.É. (1812). "Tableau des Quadrumanes, ou des animaux composant le premier Ordre de la Classe des Mammifères". Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Paris. 19: 85–122.
  5. ^ Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc comte de (1827). Oeuvres complètes de Buffon: avec les descriptions anatomiques de Daubenton, son collaborateur (in French). Verdière et Ladrange. p. 61.
  6. ^ "Family Cercopithecidae Cercopithecids: Old World Monkeys", Mammals of Africa : Primates, Bloomsbury Publishing (UK), 2013, doi:10.5040/9781472926920.part-0018, ISBN 978-1-4729-2692-0, retrieved 2022-07-13
  7. ^ Seiffert, Erik R. (2012-12-19). "Early primate evolution in Afro-Arabia". Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews. 21 (6): 239–253. doi:10.1002/evan.21335. PMID 23280921. S2CID 38884357.
  8. ^ Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco (2015-04-23). "Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys". Nature. 520 (7548): 538–541. Bibcode:2015Natur.520..538B. doi:10.1038/nature14120. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 25652825. S2CID 4456556.
  9. ^ a b O'Neill, Dennis (2012). "Early primate evolution: the first primates". Palomar College. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  10. ^ Kay, Richard F. (2015-03-06). "New World monkey origins". Science. 347 (6226): 1068–1069. Bibcode:2015Sci...347.1068K. doi:10.1126/science.aaa9217. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 25745147. S2CID 206636402.
  11. ^ Pozzi, Luca; Hdgson, Jason A.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Raaum, Ryan L.; Disotell, Todd R. (28 February 2014). "Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 165–183. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.023. PMC 4059600. PMID 24583291.
  12. ^ Gabbatiss, Josh. "The monkeys that sailed across the Atlantic to South America". Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  13. ^ Takai, Masanaru; Shigehara, Nobuo; Aung, Aye Ko; Tun, Soe Thura; Soe, Aung Naing; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Thein, Tin (2001). "A new anthropoid from the latest middle Eocene of Pondaung, central Myanmar". Journal of Human Evolution. 40 (5): 393–409. doi:10.1006/jhev.2001.0463. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 11322801.
  14. ^ "Fossilworks: Catarrhini". Fossilworks. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  15. ^ Wasson, D. A. (1868). "Epic philosophy". The North American Review. 107 (221): 501–542. JSTOR 25109409.
  16. ^ Simons, E. L.; Delson, E. (1978-12-31), Maglio, Vincent J.; Cooke, H. B. S. (eds.), "VII: Cercopithecidae and Parapithecidae", Evolution of African Mammals, Harvard University Press, pp. 100–119, doi:10.4159/harvard.9780674431263.c8, ISBN 978-0-674-43125-6, retrieved 2022-05-10
  17. ^ Geissmann, Thomas. "Die Gibbons (Hylobatidae): Eine Einführung" [The gibbons (Hylobatidae): an introduction]. Gibbon Research Lab. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  18. ^ Osman Hill, W. C. (1953). Primates comparative anatomy and taxonomy I—Strepsirhini. Edinburgh Univ Pubs Science & Maths, No 3. Edinburgh University Press. p. 53. OCLC 500576914.
  19. ^ Meek, Phyllis. "The Old World monkeys". University of Michigan. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Reconstruction of ancient chromosomes offers insight into mammalian evolution". University of California, Davis. 21 June 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  21. ^ Naish, Darren. "If apes evolved from monkeys, why are there still monkeys?". Scientific American Blog Network. Scientific American. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  22. ^ Martin, W. C. L. (1841). A general introduction to the natural history of mammiferous animals, with a particular view of the physical history of man, and the more closely allied genera of the order Quadrumana, or monkeys. London, UK: Wright and Co. printers. pp. 340, 361.
  23. ^ Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne; Ruiz-García, Manuel; Pouliquen, Jean-François; Donato, Damien; James, Samantha (2018). "DNA polymerase sequences of New World monkey cytomegaloviruses: another molecular marker with which to infer Platyrrhini systematics". Journal of Virology. 92 (18): e00980–18. doi:10.1128/JVI.00980-18. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 6146696. PMID 29976674.
  24. ^ Bugge, J. (1974). "Chapter 4: Primates Linnaeus 1758". Cells Tissues Organs. The cephalic arterial system in insectivores, primates, rodents and lagomorphs, with special reference to the systematic classification. 87 (Suppl. 62): 32–43. doi:10.1159/000144209. ISSN 1422-6405.
  25. ^ Melchionna, Marina (10 December 2018). Macroevolutionary analysis of Primates with special reference to the genus Homo (PDF) (PhD thesis). Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  26. ^ Martin, W. C. L. (1841). A general introduction to the natural history of mammiferous animals, with a particular view of the physical history of man, and the more closely allied genera of the order Quadrumana, or monkeys. London, UK: Wright and Co. printers. p. 339.
  27. ^ Linné, Carl von; Salvius, Lars (1758). Caroli Linnaei...Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Vol. 1. Holmiae: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii.
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