Milk


A glass of cow milk

Milk is a white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals (including breastfed human infants) before they are able to digest solid food.[1] Immune factors and immune-modulating components in milk contribute to milk immunity. Early-lactation milk, which is called colostrum, contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system, and thus reduces the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many nutrients, including protein and lactose.[2]

As an agricultural product, dairy milk is collected from farm animals. In 2011, dairy farms produced around 730 million tonnes (800 million short tons) of milk[3] from 260 million dairy cows.[4] India is the world's largest producer of milk and the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, but it exports few other milk products.[5][6] Because there is an ever-increasing demand for dairy products within India, it could eventually become a net importer of dairy products.[7] New Zealand, Germany and the Netherlands are the largest exporters of milk products.[8] The US CDC recommends that children over the age of 12 months should have two servings of dairy milk products a day.[9]

More than six billion people worldwide consume milk and milk products, and between 750 and 900 million people live in dairy-farming households.[10]

  1. ^ Van Winckel, M; Velde, SV; De Bruyne, R; Van Biervliet, S (2011). "Clinical Practice". European Journal of Pediatrics. 170 (12): 1489–1494. doi:10.1007/s00431-011-1547-x. PMID 21912895. S2CID 26852044.
  2. ^ Pehrsson, P.R.; Haytowitz, D.B.; Holden, J.M.; Perry, C.R.; Beckler, D.G. (2000). "USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Food Sampling" (PDF). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 13 (4): 379–89. doi:10.1006/jfca.1999.0867. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2003.
  3. ^ "Food Outlook – Global Market Analysis" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. May 2012. pp. 8, 51–54. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 22, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  4. ^ "World Dairy Cow Numbers". [FAO]. January 14, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
  5. ^ Anand Kumar (October 21, 2013). "India emerging as a leading milk product exporter". Dawn. Pakistan. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  6. ^ "Government scraps incentive on milk powder exports to check prices". timesofindia-economictimes. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  7. ^ "Milk quality in India". milkproduction.com. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  8. ^ "Top Milk Exporting Countries". Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  9. ^ "Cow's Milk and Milk Alternatives". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 25, 2022.
  10. ^ Hemme, T.; Otte, J., eds. (2010). Status and Prospects for Smallholder Milk Production: A Global Perspective (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2011.

Powered by 654 easy search