Temporal range:
Caribbean reef squid or Sepioteuthis sepioidea is a complex lophotrochozoan
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Clade: ParaHoxozoa
Clade: Bilateria
Clade: Nephrozoa
(unranked): Protostomia
(unranked): Spiralia
Superphylum: Lophotrochozoa
Halanych et al., 1995

Lophotrochozoa (/ləˌfɒtrkˈzə/, "crest/wheel animals") is a clade of protostome animals within the Spiralia. The taxon was established as a monophyletic group based on molecular evidence.[2][3] The clade includes animals like annelids, molluscs, bryozoans, brachiopods, and platyhelminthes.[4]

  1. ^ Budd, Graham E.; Jackson, Illiam S. C. (January 5, 2016). "Ecological innovations in the Cambrian and the origins of the crown group phyla". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1685): 20150287. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0287. PMC 4685591. PMID 26598735.
  2. ^ Halanych, K. M.; Bacheller, J.; Liva, S.; Aguinaldo, A. A.; Hillis, D. M.; Lake, J. A. (17 March 1995). "18S rDNA evidence that the Lophophorates are Protostome Animals". Science. 267 (5204): 1641–1643. doi:10.1126/science.7886451. PMID 7886451. S2CID 12196991.
  3. ^ Hervé, Philippe; Lartillot, Nicolas; Brinkmann, Henner (May 2005). "Multigene Analyses of Bilaterian Animals Corroborate the Monophyly of Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, and Protostomia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (5): 1246–1253. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi111. PMID 15703236.
  4. ^ Halanych, K. M. (2016-01-01), "Lophotrochozoa, Diversification of", in Kliman, Richard M. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, Oxford: Academic Press, pp. 405–408, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-800049-6.00272-9, ISBN 978-0-12-800426-5, retrieved 2021-02-14

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