Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese湖南省 (Húnán Shěng)
 • AbbreviationHN / (pinyin: Xiāng)
(clockwise from top)
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
Map showing the location of Hunan Province
Coordinates: 28°06′46″N 112°59′00″E / 28.11265°N 112.98338°E / 28.11265; 112.98338
Named for,  – lake
, nán – south
"South of the lake"
(and largest city)
Divisions14 prefectures, 122 counties, 1,933 townships (2018), 29,224 villages (2018)
 • TypeProvince
 • BodyHunan Provincial People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryShen Xiaoming
 • Congress chairmanShen Xiaoming
 • GovernorMao Weiming
 • CPPCC chairmanMao Wanchun
 • Total210,000 km2 (80,000 sq mi)
 • Rank10th
Highest elevation2,115.2 m (6,939.6 ft)
 • Total66,444,864
 • Rank7th
 • Density320/km2 (820/sq mi)
  • Rank13th
 • Ethnic compositionHan – 90%
Tujia – 4%
Miao – 3%
Dong – 1%
Yao – 1%
Other peoples – 1%
 • Languages and dialectsChinese varieties:
Xiang, Gan, Southwestern Mandarin, Xiangnan Tuhua, Waxiang, Hakka
Non-Chinese languages:
Xong, Tujia, Mien, Gam
ISO 3166 codeCN-HN
GDP (2021[3])CNY 4.6 trillion
USD 724 billion
$1.1 trillion (PPP)[3] (9nd)
 • per capita¥69,300
$ 10,908 (14th)
$16,618 (PPP)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.762[4]
high · 15th
"Hunan" in Chinese characters
Xiangɣu˩˧ nia˩˧ (fu-lã)
Literal meaning"South of the (Dongting) Lake"

Hunan (UK: /hˈnæn/, US: /hˈnɑːn/;[5] 湖南) is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, part of the South Central China region. Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed, it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west and Chongqing to the northwest. Its capital and largest city is Changsha, which also abuts the Xiang River. Hengyang, Zhuzhou, and Yueyang are among its most populous urban cities. With a population of just over 66 million as of 2020 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous province, the fourth most populous among landlocked provinces, the second most populous in South Central China after Guangdong and the most populous province in Central China. It is the largest province in South-Central China, the fourth largest among landlocked provinces and the 10th most extensive province by area.

Hunan's nominal GDP was US$724 billion (CNY 4.6 trillion) as of 2021, appearing in the world's top 20 largest sub-national economies, with its GDP (PPP) being over US$1.1 trillion.[6][7] Hunan is the 9th-largest provincial economy of China, the fourth largest in South Central China, the third largest in Central China and the fourth largest among landlocked provinces. Its GDP (nominal) per capita exceeded US$10,900 (69,300 CNY), making it the third richest province in the South Central China region after Guangdong and Hubei.[6] As of 2020, Hunan's GDP (nominal) reached 605 billion US dollars (CNY 4.18 trillion),[8][9] exceeding that of Poland, with a GDP of US$596 billion and Thailand, with a GDP of US$501 billion, the 22nd and 25th largest in the world respectively.[10]

The name Hunan literally means "south of the lake".[11] The lake that is referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province. Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked Xiāng (Chinese: ), after the Xiang River, which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province. The area of Hunan was under Chinese rule as far back as 350 BC. Hunan was the birthplace of communist revolutionary Mao Zedong,[12] who became the Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and the founding father of the People's Republic of China. Hunan today is home to some ethnic minorities, including the Tujia and Miao, along with the Han Chinese, who make up a majority of the population. Varieties of Chinese spoken include Xiang, Gan and Southwestern Mandarin.

The site of Wulingyuan was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992.[13] Changsha, the capital, is located in the eastern part of the province; it is now an important commercial, manufacturing and transportation centre.[14] The busiest airports serve domestic and international flights for Hunan, including Changsha Huanghua International Airport, Zhangjiajie Hehua International Airport and Changde Taohuayuan Airport.[15] Hunan is the seat of the Yuelu Academy (later become Hunan University), which is one of the four major academies over the last 1000 years in ancient China.[16] As of 2022, Hunan hosts 130 institutions of higher education, ranking sixth among all Chinese provinces.[17] In 2017, two major cities in Hunan (Changsha and Xiangtan ) ranked in the top 500 cities in the world by scientific research output, as tracked by the Nature Index.[18]

  1. ^ "Doing Business in China – Survey". Ministry Of Commerce – People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  2. ^ "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b "List of Chinese provinces by 2021 GDP". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 3 October 2021.[dead link]
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Subnational HDI - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 2023-07-30.
  5. ^ "Guizhou". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on April 13, 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Decoding China's 2021 GDP Growth Rate: A Look at Regional Numbers". China Briefing News. 2022-02-07. Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  7. ^ "Hunan Province's Regional GDP Hit 4.6 Trillion Yuan in 2021". Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  8. ^ "Top 10 provincial regions in China by GDP 2020". Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  9. ^ rsatax (2021-06-11). "Investing in Hunan". rsa-tax. Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  10. ^ "2020 GDP (current US$) - Poland, Thailand, Nigeria". Retrieved 2022-06-15.
  11. ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, People's Daily Online.
  12. ^ Schram, Stuart R. (Stuart Reynolds), 1924-2012. (1967). Mao Tse-tung. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0140208402. OCLC 7874661.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  14. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Changsha travel | Hunan, China". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2019-07-11. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  15. ^ 2021年民航机场吞吐量排名 (PDF) (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China. 2022-03-22. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
  16. ^ Fan Chengda (1126-1193). Shigushanji(石鼓山记):"天下有书院四:徂徕、金山、岳麓、石鼓。"
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference :7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference :9 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

Powered by 654 easy search