Temporal range:
Lepisosteus oculatus.jpg
Spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus
Amia calva1.jpg
Bowfin, Amia calva
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Holostei
Müller, 1846
Clades (with orders)

Holostei is a group of ray-finned bony fish. It is divided into two major clades, the Halecomorphi, represented by the single living genus, Amia with two species, the bowfins (Amia calva and Amia ocellicauda), as well as the Ginglymodi, the sole living representatives being the gars (Lepisosteidae), represented by seven living species in two genera (Atractosteus, Lepisosteus).[1] The earliest members of the clade appeared during the Early Triassic, over 250 million years ago.[2]

Holostei was thought to be regarded as paraphyletic. However, a recent study provided evidence that the Holostei are the closest living relates of the Teleostei, both within the Neopterygii. This was found from the morphology of the Holostei, for example presence of a paired vomer.[3] Holosteans are closer to teleosts than are the chondrosteans, the other group intermediate between teleosts and cartilaginous fish, which are regarded as (at the nearest[a]) a sister group to the Neopterigii.

The spiracles of holosteans are reduced to vestigial remnants and the bones are lightly ossified. The thick ganoid scales of the gars are more primitive than those of the bowfin.

  1. ^ López-Arbarello, Adriana; Sferco, Emilia (March 2018). "Neopterygian phylogeny: the merger assay". Royal Society Open Science. 5 (3): 172337. Bibcode:2018RSOS....572337L. doi:10.1098/rsos.172337. PMC 5882744. PMID 29657820.
  2. ^ Romano, Carlo (2021). "A Hiatus Obscures the Early Evolution of Modern Lineages of Bony Fishes". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8: 672. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.618853. ISSN 2296-6463.
  3. ^ Hastings, Walker Jr., Galland (2014). FISHES, A GUIDE TO THEIR DIVERSITY. Oakland, California: University of California Press. pp. 60–62.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

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