Hearing loss

Hearing loss
Other namesDeaf or hard of hearing; anakusis or anacusis is total deafness[1]
A stylized white ear, with two white bars surrounding it, on a blue background.
The international symbol of deafness and hearing loss
SpecialtyOtorhinolaryngology, audiology
SymptomsDecreased ability to hear
ComplicationsSocial isolation,[2] dementia
TypesConductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing loss, central auditory dysfunction[3]
CausesGenetics, aging, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, certain medications or toxins[2]
Diagnostic methodHearing tests
PreventionImmunization, proper care around pregnancy, avoiding loud noise, avoiding certain medications[2]
TreatmentHearing aids, sign language, cochlear implants, subtitles[2]
Frequency1.33 billion / 18.5% (2015)[4]

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear.[5] Hearing loss may be present at birth or acquired at any time afterwards.[6][7] Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears.[2] In children, hearing problems can affect the ability to acquire spoken language, and in adults it can create difficulties with social interaction and at work.[8] Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent. Hearing loss related to age usually affects both ears and is due to cochlear hair cell loss.[9] In some people, particularly older people, hearing loss can result in loneliness.[2] Deaf people usually have little to no hearing.[6]

Hearing loss may be caused by a number of factors, including: genetics, ageing, exposure to noise, some infections, birth complications, trauma to the ear, and certain medications or toxins.[2] A common condition that results in hearing loss is chronic ear infections.[2] Certain infections during pregnancy, such as cytomegalovirus, syphilis and rubella, may also cause hearing loss in the child.[2][10] Hearing loss is diagnosed when hearing testing finds that a person is unable to hear 25 decibels in at least one ear.[2] Testing for poor hearing is recommended for all newborns.[8] Hearing loss can be categorized as mild (25 to 40 dB), moderate (41 to 55 dB), moderate-severe (56 to 70 dB), severe (71 to 90 dB), or profound (greater than 90 dB).[2] There are three main types of hearing loss: conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss.[3]

About half of hearing loss globally is preventable through public health measures.[2] Such practices include immunization, proper care around pregnancy, avoiding loud noise, and avoiding certain medications.[2] The World Health Organization recommends that young people limit exposure to loud sounds and the use of personal audio players to an hour a day in an effort to limit exposure to noise.[11] Early identification and support are particularly important in children.[2] For many, hearing aids, sign language, cochlear implants and subtitles are useful.[2] Lip reading is another useful skill some develop.[2] Access to hearing aids, however, is limited in many areas of the world.[2]

As of 2013 hearing loss affects about 1.1 billion people to some degree.[12] It causes disability in about 466 million people (5% of the global population), and moderate to severe disability in 124 million people.[2][13][14] Of those with moderate to severe disability 108 million live in low and middle income countries.[13] Of those with hearing loss, it began during childhood for 65 million.[15] Those who use sign language and are members of Deaf culture may see themselves as having a difference rather than a disability.[16] Many members of Deaf culture oppose attempts to cure deafness[17][18][19] and some within this community view cochlear implants with concern as they have the potential to eliminate their culture.[20] The terms hearing impairment or hearing loss are often viewed negatively as emphasizing what people cannot do, although the terms are still regularly used when referring to deafness in medical contexts.[16][21]

  1. ^ Elsevier, Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Elsevier.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Deafness and hearing loss Fact sheet N°300". World Health Organization. March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^ a b Shearer AE, Hildebrand MS, Smith RJ (2014). "Deafness and Hereditary Hearing Loss Overview". In Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJ, Stephens K, Amemiya A (eds.). GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301607.
  4. ^ "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. October 2016. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  5. ^ "Deafness". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  6. ^ a b "Deafness and hearing loss". World Health Organization. 2020-03-01. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
  7. ^ "Hearing Loss at Birth (Congenital Hearing Loss)". American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
  8. ^ a b Lasak JM, Allen P, McVay T, Lewis D (March 2014). "Hearing loss: diagnosis and management". Primary Care. 41 (1): 19–31. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.10.003. PMID 24439878.
  9. ^ Schilder, Anne Gm; Chong, Lee Yee; Ftouh, Saoussen; Burton, Martin J. (2017). "Bilateral versus unilateral hearing aids for bilateral hearing impairment in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017 (12): CD012665. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012665.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6486194. PMID 29256573.
  10. ^ Fowler KB (December 2013). "Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: audiologic outcome". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 57 Suppl 4 (suppl_4): S182-4. doi:10.1093/cid/cit609. PMC 3836573. PMID 24257423.
  11. ^ "1.1 billion people at risk of hearing loss WHO highlights serious threat posed by exposure to recreational noise" (PDF). who.int. 27 February 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. August 2015. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  13. ^ a b The global burden of disease: 2004 update (PDF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2008. p. 35. ISBN 9789241563710. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-06-24.
  14. ^ Olusanya BO, Neumann KJ, Saunders JE (May 2014). "The global burden of disabling hearing impairment: a call to action". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92 (5): 367–73. doi:10.2471/blt.13.128728. PMC 4007124. PMID 24839326.
  15. ^ Elzouki AY (2012). Textbook of clinical pediatrics (2 ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 602. ISBN 9783642022012. Archived from the original on 2015-12-14.
  16. ^ a b "Community and Culture - Frequently Asked Questions". nad.org. National Association of the Deaf. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  17. ^ "Sound and Fury - Cochlear Implants - Essay". www.pbs.org. PBS. Archived from the original on 2015-07-06. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  18. ^ "Understanding Deafness: Not Everyone Wants to Be 'Fixed'". www.theatlantic.com. The Atlantic. 2013-08-09. Archived from the original on 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  19. ^ Williams S (2012-09-13). "Why not all deaf people want to be cured". www.telegraph.co.uk. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-02.
  20. ^ Sparrow R (2005). "Defending Deaf Culture: The Case of Cochlear Implants" (PDF). The Journal of Political Philosophy. 13 (2): 135–152. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9760.2005.00217.x. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  21. ^ Tidy, Colin (March 2014). "Dealing with Hearing-impaired Patients". patient.info. Retrieved 16 August 2020.

Powered by 654 easy search