# Friction

Friction between two objects. The blue one has more friction against the sloped surface than the green one.
Figure 1: Simulated blocks with fractal rough surfaces, exhibiting static frictional interactions[1]

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.[2] There are several types of friction:

• Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction generally arises from the interaction of surface features, known as asperities (see Figure 1).
• Fluid friction describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.[3][4]
• Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a lubricant fluid separates two solid surfaces.[5][6][7]
• Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of a body.
• Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation.[4]

When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into thermal energy (that is, it converts work to heat). This property can have dramatic consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy whenever motion with friction occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred. Another important consequence of many types of friction can be wear, which may lead to performance degradation or damage to components. Friction is a component of the science of tribology.

Friction is desirable and important in supplying traction to facilitate motion on land. Most land vehicles rely on friction for acceleration, deceleration and changing direction. Sudden reductions in traction can cause loss of control and accidents.

Friction is not itself a fundamental force. Dry friction arises from a combination of inter-surface adhesion, surface roughness, surface deformation, and surface contamination. The complexity of these interactions makes the calculation of friction from first principles impractical and necessitates the use of empirical methods for analysis and the development of theory.

Friction is a non-conservative force – work done against friction is path dependent. In the presence of friction, some kinetic energy is always transformed to thermal energy, so mechanical energy is not conserved.

1. ^ Cite error: The named reference statfric was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
2. ^ "friction". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
3. ^ Beer, Ferdinand P.; Johnston, E. Russel, Jr. (1996). Vector Mechanics for Engineers (Sixth ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 397. ISBN 978-0-07-297688-5.
4. ^ a b Meriam, J. L.; Kraige, L. G. (2002). Engineering Mechanics (fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-471-60293-4.
5. ^ Ruina, Andy; Pratap, Rudra (2002). Introduction to Statics and Dynamics (PDF). Oxford University Press. p. 713.
6. ^ Hibbeler, R. C. (2007). Engineering Mechanics (Eleventh ed.). Pearson, Prentice Hall. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-13-127146-3.
7. ^ Soutas-Little, Robert W.; Inman, Balint (2008). Engineering Mechanics. Thomson. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-495-29610-2.