Freshwater acidification

Diagram depicting the sources and cycles of acid rain precipitation.

Freshwater acidification occurs when acidic inputs enter a body of fresh water through the weathering of rocks, invasion of acidifying gas (e.g. carbon dioxide), or by the reduction of acid anions, like sulfate and nitrate within a lake.[1] Freshwater acidification is primarily caused by sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) entering the water from atmospheric depositions and soil leaching.[1] Carbonic acid and dissolved carbon dioxide can also enter freshwaters, in a similar manner associated with runoff, through carbon dioxide-rich soils.[1] Runoff that contains these compounds may incorporate acidifying hydrogen ions and inorganic aluminum, which can be toxic to marine organisms.[1] Acid rain is also a contributor to freshwater acidification. It is created when SOx and NOx react with water, oxygen, and other oxidants within the clouds.[2]

  1. ^ a b c d Psenner, Roland (March 1994). "Environmental impacts on freshwaters: acidification as a global problem". Science of the Total Environment. 143 (1): 53–61. Bibcode:1994ScTEn.143...53P. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(94)90532-0. ISSN 0048-9697.
  2. ^ Irwin, J.G.; Williams, M.L. (1988). "Acid rain: Chemistry and transport". Environmental Pollution. 50 (1–2): 29–59. doi:10.1016/0269-7491(88)90184-4. ISSN 0269-7491. PMID 15092652.

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