Extracellular matrix

Extracellular matrix
Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium and connective tissue
LatinMatrix extracellularis
Anatomical terms of microanatomy

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM), also called intercellular matrix,[1][2] is a network consisting of extracellular macromolecules and minerals, such as collagen, enzymes, glycoproteins and hydroxyapatite that provide structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells.[3][4][5] Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM.[6]

The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane.[7] Interstitial matrix is present between various animal cells (i.e., in the intercellular spaces). Gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the ECM.[8] Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest. Each type of connective tissue in animals has a type of ECM: collagen fibers and bone mineral comprise the ECM of bone tissue; reticular fibers and ground substance comprise the ECM of loose connective tissue; and blood plasma is the ECM of blood.

The plant ECM includes cell wall components, like cellulose, in addition to more complex signaling molecules.[9] Some single-celled organisms adopt multicellular biofilms in which the cells are embedded in an ECM composed primarily of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS).[10]

  1. ^ "Matrix - Definition and Examples - Biology Online Dictionary". 24 December 2021.
  2. ^ "Body Tissues | SEER Training". training.seer.cancer.gov. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  3. ^ Theocharis AD, Skandalis SS, Gialeli C, Karamanos NK (February 2016). "Extracellular matrix structure". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 97: 4–27. doi:10.1016/j.addr.2015.11.001. PMID 26562801.
  4. ^ Bonnans C, Chou J, Werb Z (December 2014). "Remodelling the extracellular matrix in development and disease". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 15 (12): 786–801. doi:10.1038/nrm3904. PMC 4316204. PMID 25415508.
  5. ^ Michel G, Tonon T, Scornet D, Cock JM, Kloareg B (October 2010). "The cell wall polysaccharide metabolism of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Insights into the evolution of extracellular matrix polysaccharides in Eukaryotes". The New Phytologist. 188 (1): 82–97. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03374.x. PMID 20618907.open access
  6. ^ Abedin M, King N (December 2010). "Diverse evolutionary paths to cell adhesion". Trends in Cell Biology. 20 (12): 734–42. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2010.08.002. PMC 2991404. PMID 20817460.
  7. ^ Kumar; Abbas; Fausto (2005). Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-0187-8.
  8. ^ Alberts B, Bray D, Hopin K, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2004). "Tissues and Cancer". Essential cell biology. New York and London: Garland Science. ISBN 978-0-8153-3481-1.
  9. ^ Brownlee, Colin (October 2002). "Role of the extracellular matrix in cell-cell signalling: paracrine paradigms". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 5 (5): 396–401. doi:10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00286-8. PMID 12183177.
  10. ^ Kostakioti M, Hadjifrangiskou M, Hultgren SJ (April 2013). "Bacterial biofilms: development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies in the dawn of the postantibiotic era". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 3 (4): a010306. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a010306. PMC 3683961. PMID 23545571.

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