Ernst Mayr

Ernst Mayr
Mayr in 1994
Ernst Walter Mayr

(1904-07-05)5 July 1904
Kempten, Bavaria, German Empire
Died3 February 2005(2005-02-03) (aged 100)
NationalityGerman American
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma mater
Margarete ("Gretel") Simon
(m. 1935; died 1990)
ChildrenChrista Elizabeth Menzel; Susanne Mayr Harrison
  • Otto Mayr (father)
  • Helene Pusinelli Mayr (mother)
Scientific career
FieldsSystematics, evolutionary biology, ornithology, philosophy of biology

Ernst Walter Mayr (/ˈmaɪər/; 5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005)[1][2] was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists. He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, ornithologist, philosopher of biology, and historian of science.[3] His work contributed to the conceptual revolution that led to the modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics, systematics, and Darwinian evolution, and to the development of the biological species concept.

Although Charles Darwin and others posited that multiple species could evolve from a single common ancestor, the mechanism by which this occurred was not understood, creating the species problem. Ernst Mayr approached the problem with a new definition for species. In his book Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942) he wrote that a species is not just a group of morphologically similar individuals, but a group that can breed only among themselves, excluding all others. When populations within a species become isolated by geography, feeding strategy, mate choice, or other means, they may start to differ from other populations through genetic drift and natural selection, and over time may evolve into new species. The most significant and rapid genetic reorganization occurs in extremely small populations that have been isolated (as on islands).

His theory of peripatric speciation (a more precise form of allopatric speciation which he advanced), based on his work on birds, is still considered a leading mode of speciation, and was the theoretical underpinning for the theory of punctuated equilibrium, proposed by Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould. Mayr is sometimes credited with inventing modern philosophy of biology, particularly the part related to evolutionary biology, which he distinguished from physics due to its introduction of (natural) history into science.

  1. ^ a b Bock, Walter J. (2006). "Ernst Walter Mayr. 5 July 1904 -- 3 February 2005: Elected ForMemRS 1988". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 52: 167–187. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2006.0013. JSTOR 20461341. S2CID 70809804.
  2. ^ Meyer, A. (2005). "On the Importance of Being Ernst Mayr". PLOS Biology. 3 (5): e152. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030152. PMC 1073696.
  3. ^ Rennie, J. (1994), Profile: Ernst Mayr – Darwin's Current Bulldog, Scientific American 271 (2), 24-25.

Powered by 654 easy search