Temporal range: Molecular clock indicates a possible Ediacaran origin[1]
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Clade: ParaHoxozoa
Clade: Bilateria
Clade: Nephrozoa
(unranked): Protostomia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
Aguinaldo et al., 1997

Ecdysozoa (/ˌɛkdɪsˈzə/) is a group of protostome animals,[4] including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla. The grouping of these animal phyla into a single clade was first proposed by Eernisse et al. (1992) based on a phylogenetic analysis of 141 morphological characters of ultrastructural and embryological phenotypes.[5] This clade, that is, a group consisting of a common ancestor and all its descendants, was formally named by Aguinaldo et al. in 1997, based mainly on phylogenetic trees constructed using 18S ribosomal RNA genes.[6]

A large study in 2008 by Dunn et al. strongly supported the monophyly of Ecdysozoa.[7]

The group Ecdysozoa is supported by many morphological characters, including growth by ecdysis with moulting of the cuticle without mitosis in the epirdermis under control of the prohormone ecdysone, and internal fertilization.[8]

The group was initially contested by a significant minority of biologists. Some argued for groupings based on more traditional taxonomic techniques,[9] while others contested the interpretation of the molecular data.[10][11]

  1. ^ a b Howard RJ, Giacomelli M, Lozano-Fernandez J, Edgecombe GD, Fleming JF, Kristensen RM, Ma X, Olesen J, Sørensen MV, Thomsen PF, Wills MA, Donoghue PC, Pisani D (2022). "The Ediacaran origin of ecdysozoa: Integrating fossil and Phylogenomic Data". Journal of the Geological Society. 179 (4). doi:10.1144/jgs2021-107.
  2. ^ Liu, Yunhuan; Carlisle, Emily; Zhang, Huaqiao; Yang, Ben; Steiner, Michael; Shao, Tiequan; Duan, Baichuan; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Shuhai (2022-08-17). "Saccorhytus is an early ecdysozoan and not the earliest deuterostome". Nature. 609 (7927): 541–546. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05107-z. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 35978194. S2CID 251646316.
  3. ^ Howard, Richard J.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Shi, Xiaomei; Hou, Xianguang; Ma, Xiaoya (2020-11-23). "Ancestral morphology of Ecdysozoa constrained by an early Cambrian stem group ecdysozoan". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 20 (1): 156. doi:10.1186/s12862-020-01720-6. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 7684930. PMID 33228518.
  4. ^ Telford, Maximilian J.; Bourlat, Sarah J.; Economou, Andrew; Papillon, Daniel; Rota-Stabelli, Omar (2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 2614232. PMID 18192181.
  5. ^ Eernisse, D. J.; Albert, J. S.; Anderson, F. E. (1992). "Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa: a phylogenetic analysis of spiralian metazoan morphology". Systematic Biology. 41 (3): 305–330. doi:10.1093/sysbio/41.3.305.
  6. ^ Aguinaldo, A. M. A.; J. M. Turbeville; L. S. Linford; M. C. Rivera; J. R. Garey; R. A. Raff; J. A. Lake (29 May 1997). "Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals". Nature. 387 (6632): 489–493. Bibcode:1997Natur.387R.489A. doi:10.1038/387489a0. PMID 9168109. S2CID 4334033.
  7. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D.Q.; et al. (10 April 2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. Bibcode:2008Natur.452..745D. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464. S2CID 4397099.
  8. ^ Ax, P. (1985). "The position of the Gnathostomulida and Platyhelminthes in the phylogenetic system of the Bilateria". The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates: 168–180.
  9. ^ Nielsen, Claus (1995). Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850682-9.
  10. ^ Blair, J. E.; Kazuho Ikeo; Takashi Gojobori; S. Blair Hedges (8 April 2002). "The evolutionary position of nematodes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-2-7. PMC 102755. PMID 11985779.
  11. ^ Wägele, J. W.; T. Erikson; P. Lockhart; B. Misof (December 1999). "The Ecdysozoa: Artifact or monophylum?". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 37 (4): 211–223. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.1999.tb00985.x.

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