Dog


Dog
Temporal range: Late Pleistocene to present[1]
Domesticated
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species:
C. familiaris
Binomial name
Canis familiaris
Synonyms[3]
List
  • C. aegyptius Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. alco C. E. H. Smith, 1839,
  • C. americanus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. anglicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. antarcticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. aprinus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. aquaticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. aquatilis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. avicularis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. borealis C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. brevipilis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. cursorius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. domesticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. extrarius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. ferus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. fricator Gmelin, 1792
  • C. fricatrix Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. fuillus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. gallicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. glaucus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. graius Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. grajus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hagenbecki Krumbiegel, 1950
  • C. haitensis C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. hibernicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hirsutus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. hybridus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. islandicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. italicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. laniarius Gmelin, 1792
  • C. leoninus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. leporarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. lupus familiaris Linnaeus,1758
  • C. major Gmelin, 1792
  • C. mastinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. melitacus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. melitaeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. minor Gmelin, 1792
  • C. molossus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. mustelinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. obesus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. orientalis Gmelin, 1792
  • C. pacificus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. plancus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. pomeranus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. sagaces C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. sanguinarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. sagax Linnaeus, 1758
  • C. scoticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. sibiricus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. suillus C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. terraenovae C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. terrarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. turcicus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. urcani C. E. H. Smith, 1839
  • C. variegatus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. venaticus Gmelin, 1792
  • C. vertegus Gmelin, 1792

The dog (Canis familiaris[4][5] or Canis lupus familiaris[5]) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf. Also called the domestic dog, it is derived from the extinct Pleistocene wolf,[6][7] and the modern wolf is the dog's nearest living relative.[8] Dogs were the first species to be domesticated[9][8] by hunter-gatherers over 15,000 years ago[7] before the development of agriculture.[1] Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individuals[10] and gained the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.[11]

The dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.[12] Dog breeds vary widely in shape, size, and color. They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and the military, companionship, therapy, and aiding disabled people. Over the millennia, dogs became uniquely adapted to human behavior, and the human-canine bond has been a topic of frequent study.[13] This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend".[14]

  1. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Thalmann2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference linnaeus1758 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference wozencraft2005 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Alvares2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b Wang & Tedford 2008, p. 1.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bergström2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Frantz2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference freedman2017 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference larson2014 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference Ostrander2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Axelsson, E.; Ratnakumar, A.; Arendt, M.L.; Maqbool, K.; Webster, M.T.; Perloski, M.; Liberg, O.; Arnemo, J.M.; Hedhammar, Å.; Lindblad-Toh, K. (2013). "The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet". Nature. 495 (#7441): 360–364. Bibcode:2013Natur.495..360A. doi:10.1038/nature11837. PMID 23354050. S2CID 4415412.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference ADW was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference berns2012 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Derr was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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