Cooperation (evolution)

In evolution, cooperation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits. It is commonly defined as any adaptation that has evolved, at least in part, to increase the reproductive success of the actor's social partners.[1] For example, territorial choruses by male lions discourage intruders and are likely to benefit all contributors.[2]

This process contrasts with intragroup competition where individuals work against each other for selfish reasons. Cooperation exists not only in humans but in other animals as well. The diversity of taxa that exhibits cooperation is quite large, ranging from zebra herds to pied babblers to African elephants. Many animal and plant species cooperate with both members of their own species and with members of other species.

  1. ^ Gardner, Andy; Griffin, Ashleigh; West, Stuart (December 2009). Theory of Cooperation. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0021910. ISBN 978-0470016176. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  2. ^ Clutton-Brock, T (5 November 2009). "Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies". Nature. 462 (7269): 51–57. Bibcode:2009Natur.462...51C. doi:10.1038/nature08366. PMID 19890322. S2CID 205218102.

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