Plot of extinction intensity (percentage of genera that are present in each interval of time but do not exist in the following interval) vs time in the past for marine genera. Geological periods are annotated (by abbreviation and colour) above. The Capitanian extinction event occurred 260–259 million years ago, ~7 million years before the Permian–Triassic extinction event, with just over 35% (according to this source) failing to survive. (source and image info)
The Capitanian mass extinction event, also known as the end-Guadalupian extinction event, the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary mass extinction, the pre-Lopingian crisis, or the Middle Permian extinction, was an extinction event that predated the end-Permian extinction event. The mass extinction occurred during a period of decreased species richness and increased extinction rates near the end of the Middle Permian, also known as the Guadalupian epoch. It is often called the end-Guadalupian extinction event because of its initial recognition between the Guadalupian and Lopingian series; however, more refined stratigraphic study suggests that extinction peaks in many taxonomic groups occurred within the Guadalupian, in the latter half of the Capitanian age. The extinction event has been argued to have begun around 262 million years ago with the Late Guadalupian crisis, though its most intense pulse occurred 259 million years ago in what is known as the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary event.
Having historically been considered as part of the end-Permian extinction event, and only viewed as separate relatively recently, this mass extinction is believed to be the third largest of the Phanerozoic in terms of the percentage of species lost, after the end-Permian and Late Ordovician mass extinctions, respectively, while being the fifth worst in terms of ecological severity. The global nature of the Capitanian mass extinction has been called into question by some palaeontologists as a result of some analyses finding it to have affected only low-latitude taxa in the Northern Hemisphere.
^Bond, D. P. G., Wignall, P. B., Wang, W., Izon, G., Jiang, H. S., Lai, X. L., Sund, Y.-D., Newtona, R.J., Shaoe, L.-Y., Védrinea, S. & Cope, H. (2010). "The mid-Capitanian (Middle Permian) mass extinction and carbon isotope record of South China". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292 (1-2), pp. 282-294. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.03.056