Animal cognition

A crab-eating macaque using a stone tool to crack open a nut
Experiments like the string-pulling task performed here by a Carib grackle provide insights into animal cognition.

Animal cognition encompasses the mental capacities of non-human animals including insect cognition. The study of animal conditioning and learning used in this field was developed from comparative psychology. It has also been strongly influenced by research in ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology; the alternative name cognitive ethology is sometimes used. Many behaviors associated with the term animal intelligence are also subsumed within animal cognition.[1]

Researchers have examined animal cognition in mammals (especially primates, cetaceans, elephants, dogs, cats, pigs, horses,[2][3][4] cattle, raccoons and rodents), birds (including parrots, fowl, corvids and pigeons), reptiles (lizards, snakes, and turtles),[5] fish and invertebrates (including cephalopods, spiders and insects).[6]

  1. ^ Shettleworth SJ (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2ND ed.). New York: Oxford Press.
  2. ^ Krueger K, Heinze J (July 2008). "Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior" (PDF). Animal Cognition. 11 (3): 431–9. doi:10.1007/s10071-007-0133-0. PMID 18183432. S2CID 16621030.
  3. ^ Krueger K, Farmer K, Heinze J (May 2014). "The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses" (PDF). Animal Cognition. 17 (3): 645–55. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0696-x. PMID 24170136. S2CID 13326701.
  4. ^ Schuetz A, Farmer K, Krueger K (May 2017). "Social learning across species: horses (Equus caballus) learn from humans by observation" (PDF). Animal Cognition. 20 (3): 567–573. doi:10.1007/s10071-016-1060-8. PMID 27866286. S2CID 3957230.
  5. ^ "Reptiles known as 'living rocks' show surprising cognitive powers". Nature. 576 (7785): 10. 2019-11-29. Bibcode:2019Natur.576...10.. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03655-5. S2CID 208613023.
  6. ^ Shettleworth SJ (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2ND ed.). New York: Oxford Press.

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