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Wireless sensor network

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) refer to networks of spatially dispersed and dedicated sensors that monitor and record the physical conditions of the environment and forward the collected data to a central location. WSNs can measure environmental conditions such as temperature, sound, pollution levels, humidity and wind.[1]

These are similar to wireless ad hoc networks in the sense that they rely on wireless connectivity and spontaneous formation of networks so that sensor data can be transported wirelessly. WSNs monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, and pressure. Modern networks are bi-directional, both collecting data[2] and enabling control of sensor activity.[3] The development of these networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance.[4] Such networks are used in industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control and machine health monitoring.

A WSN is built of "nodes" – from a few to hundreds or thousands, where each node is connected to other sensors. Each such node typically has several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting. A sensor node might vary in size from a shoebox to (theoretically) a grain of dust, although microscopic dimensions have yet to be realized. Sensor node cost is similarly variable, ranging from a few to hundreds of dollars, depending on node sophistication. Size and cost constraints constrain resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and communications bandwidth. The topology of a WSN can vary from a simple star network to an advanced multi-hop wireless mesh network. Propagation can employ routing or flooding.[5][6]

In computer science and telecommunications, wireless sensor networks are an active research area supporting many workshops and conferences, including International Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNetS), IPSN, SenSys, MobiCom and EWSN. As of 2010, wireless sensor networks had deployed approximately 120 million remote units worldwide.[7]

  1. ^ Ullo, Silvia Liberata; Sinha, G. R. (2020-05-31). "Advances in Smart Environment Monitoring Systems Using IoT and Sensors". Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 20 (11): 3113. Bibcode:2020Senso..20.3113U. doi:10.3390/s20113113. ISSN 1424-8220. PMC 7309034. PMID 32486411.
  2. ^ FrancescoMario, Di; K, DasSajal; AnastasiGiuseppe (2011-08-01). "Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Elements". ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN). 8: 1–31. doi:10.1145/1993042.1993049. S2CID 15576441.
  3. ^ Xia, Feng; Tian, Yu-Chu; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Youxian (2007-10-09). "Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Applications". Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 7 (10): 2157–2173. Bibcode:2007Senso...7.2157X. doi:10.3390/s7102157. ISSN 1424-8220. PMC 3864515. PMID 28903220.
  4. ^ "Wireless sensor networks for battlefield surveillance" (PDF). 2006.
  5. ^ Dargie, W. and Poellabauer, C. (2010). Fundamentals of wireless sensor networks: theory and practice. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 168–183, 191–192. ISBN 978-0-470-99765-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  6. ^ Sohraby, K., Minoli, D., Znati, T. (2007). Wireless sensor networks: technology, protocols, and applications. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 203–209. ISBN 978-0-471-74300-2.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Oliveira, Joao; Goes, João (2012). Parametric Analog Signal Amplification Applied to Nanoscale CMOS Technologies. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 7. ISBN 9781461416708.

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