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Ubuntu

Ubuntu
Logo-ubuntu no(r)-black orange-hex.svg
VirtualBox Ubuntu 21.10 15 10 2021 13 19 12 ENG.png
Ubuntu 21.10 "Impish Indri"
DeveloperCanonical Ltd.
OS familyLinux (Unix-like)
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen-source[1][2]
Initial releaseUbuntu 4.10 (Warty Warthog) / 20 October 2004 (2004-10-20)
Latest releaseUbuntu 21.10 (Impish Indri) / 14 October 2021 (2021-10-14)[3]
Repository
Marketing targetCloud computing, personal computers, servers, supercomputers, IoT
Available inMore than 55 languages by LoCos
Update methodSoftware Updater, Ubuntu Software, apt
Package managerGNOME Software, APT, dpkg, Snap, flatpak
Platforms
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux kernel)
UserlandGNU
Default
user interface
GNOME
LicenseFree software + some proprietary device drivers[5]
Official websiteubuntu.com Edit this at Wikidata

Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊnt/ (About this soundlisten) uu-BUUN-too)[6] (Stylized as ubuntu) is a Linux distribution based on Debian and composed mostly of free and open-source software.[7][8][9] Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop,[10] Server,[11] and Core[12] for Internet of things devices[13] and robots.[14][15] All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine.[16] Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack.[17] Ubuntu's default desktop has been GNOME, since version 17.10.[18]

Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.[6][19][20] As of 22 April 2021, the most recent long-term support release is 20.04 ("Focal Fossa"), which is supported until 2025 under public support and until 2030 as a paid option for companies and free for individuals who register.[21] The latest standard release is 21.10 ("Impish Indri"), which is supported for nine months.

Ubuntu is developed by British company Canonical,[22] and a community of other developers, under a meritocratic governance model.[6][23] Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life (EOL) date.[6][24][25] Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu and donations from those who download the Ubuntu software.[26][27][28]

Ubuntu is named after the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical indicates means "humanity to others" with a connotation of "I am what I am because of who we all are".[6]

  1. ^ "kernel.ubuntu.com". kernel.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Index of /ubuntu". archive.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Ubuntu 21.10 has landed". Ubuntu. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  4. ^ "Preparing to Install". Ubuntu Official Documentation. Canonical Ltd. 2018. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2018. Ubuntu 18.04 LTS Server Edition supports four (4) major architectures: AMD64, ARM, POWER8, LinuxONE and z Systems
  5. ^ "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems". Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e Canonical. "About the Ubuntu project". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  7. ^ Canonical. "Licensing". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  8. ^ Canonical. "Our mission". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  9. ^ Canonical. "Debian". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  10. ^ Canonical. "Ubuntu PC operating system". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 16 September 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  11. ^ Canonical. "Ubuntu Server - for scale out workloads". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 23 December 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  12. ^ Canonical. "Ubuntu Core". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  13. ^ Canonical. "Ubuntu for the Internet of Things". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  14. ^ "Your first robot: A beginner's guide to ROS and Ubuntu Core [1/5]". blog.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  15. ^ Trenholm, Richard. "Open source Ubuntu Core connects robots, drones and smart homes". CNET. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  16. ^ "Canonical announces support for Ubuntu on Windows Subsystem for Linux 2". blog.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  17. ^ Canonical. "OpenStack on Ubuntu is your scalable private cloud, by Canonical". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Ubuntu". DistroWatch.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  19. ^ "Releases - Ubuntu Wiki". wiki.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  20. ^ "LTS - Ubuntu Wiki". wiki.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Ubuntu 16.04 LTS transitions to Extended Security Maintenance (ESM)". Ubuntu. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  22. ^ Canonical. "Canonical and Ubuntu". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  23. ^ Canonical. "Governance". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Releases - Ubuntu Wiki". wiki.ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  25. ^ Canonical. "Release end of life". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  26. ^ Canonical. "Support and management". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  27. ^ Canonical. "Plans and pricing". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  28. ^ Canonical. "Thank you for your contribution". Ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.

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