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MacOS wordmark (2017).svg
MacOS Monterey Desktop.png
Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)
DeveloperApple Inc.
Written in
OS familyUNIX, Macintosh
Working stateCurrent
Source modelClosed source (with open source components)
Initial releaseMarch 24, 2001 (2001-03-24)
Latest release12.2[3] (21D49)[4] (January 26, 2022 (2022-01-26)) [±]
Latest preview12.3 beta[5] (21E5196i)[6] (January 27, 2022 (2022-01-27)) [±]
Marketing targetPersonal computing
Available in39 languages[7]
List of languages
[as of macOS Catalina]: Arabic, Catalan, Croatian, Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (Australia), English (United Kingdom), English (United States), Finnish, French (Canada), French (France), German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (Latin America), Spanish (Spain), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese
Update method
Kernel typeHybrid (XNU)
user interface
Aqua (Graphical)
LicenseCommercial software, proprietary software
Preceded byClassic Mac OS, NeXTSTEP
Official websitewww.apple.com/macos
Support status

macOS (/ˌmækˈɛs/;[8] previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a proprietary graphical operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac computers. Within the market of desktop and laptop computers it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows and ahead of Chrome OS.

macOS succeeded the classic Mac OS, a Macintosh operating system with nine releases from 1984 to 1999. During this time, Apple cofounder Steve Jobs had left Apple and started another company, NeXT, developing the NeXTSTEP platform that would later be acquired by Apple to form the basis of macOS.

The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. All releases from Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard[9] and after are UNIX 03 certified,[10] with an exception for OS X 10.7 Lion.[11] Apple's mobile operating system, iOS, has been considered a variant of macOS.[12]

A prominent part of macOS's original brand identity was the use of Roman numeral X, pronounced "ten" as in Mac OS X and also the iPhone X, as well as code naming each release after species of big cats, or places within California.[13] Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016 to align with the branding of Apple's other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. After sixteen distinct versions of macOS 10, macOS Big Sur was presented as version 11 in 2020, and macOS Monterey was presented as version 12 in 2021.

macOS has supported three major processor architectures, beginning with PowerPC-based Macs in 1999. In 2006, Apple transitioned to the Intel architecture with a line of Macs using Intel Core processors. In 2020, Apple began the Apple silicon transition, using self-designed, 64-bit ARM-based Apple M1 processors on new Mac computers.

  1. ^ "What Is the I/O Kit?". IOKit Fundamentals. Apple considered several programming languages for the I/O Kit and chose a restricted subset of C++.
  2. ^ "What's New in Swift". Apple Developer (Video). June 14, 2016. At 2:40. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  3. ^ Clover, Juli (January 26, 2022). "Apple Releases macOS Monterey 12.2 With Safari Vulnerability Fix". MacRumors. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
  4. ^ "macOS 12.2 (21D49) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. January 26, 2022. Retrieved January 26, 2022.
  5. ^ Clover, Juli (January 27, 2022). "Apple Seeds First Beta of macOS Monterey 12.3 to Developers". MacRumors. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
  6. ^ "macOS 12.3 beta (21E5196i) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc. January 27, 2022. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
  7. ^ "macOS – How to Upgrade – Apple". Apple. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  8. ^ Apple Events – WWDC Keynote June 2016. Event occurs at 36:28. Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. YouTube mirror.. Youtube video archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Mac OS X Version 10.5 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  10. ^ *"Mac OS X Version 10.6 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Archived from the original on November 16, 2014. Retrieved December 4, 2014.
  11. ^ "Re: was OS X version 10.7 Lion UNIX 03 certified?". www.mail-archive.com. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  12. ^ Foresman, Chris (September 2010). "Apple TV definitely running iOS, could be jailbreak target". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
  13. ^ Ha, Anthony (June 10, 2013). "Apple Has A New, California-Based Naming Scheme For OS X, Starting With OS X Mavericks". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved June 10, 2013.

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