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Linux distribution

Ubuntu, one of the most popular desktop Linux distributions

A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection that is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system. Linux users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution).

A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System, or, more recently, Wayland), a window manager, and a desktop environment.

Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Usually, Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers.[1]

A Linux distribution may also be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software (various GNU tools and libraries, for example), packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.[2] The software is usually adapted to the distribution and then packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations usually distributed around the world.[3][4] Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers (for example, Debian-Installer and Anaconda) or the package management systems, there are only very few packages that are originally written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution.

Almost one thousand Linux distributions exist.[5][6] Because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, servers, laptops, netbooks, mobile phones and tablets,[7][8] as well as minimal environments typically for use in embedded systems.[9][10] There are commercially-backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions (such as Gentoo) are distributed mostly in source code form and compiled locally during installation.[11]

  1. ^ "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems". gnu.org. June 30, 2014. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2015.
  2. ^ "Linux Operating Systems: Distributions". swift.siphos.be. November 27, 2014. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  3. ^ Chris Hoffman (June 27, 2012). "HTG Explains: How Software Installation & Package Managers Work On Linux". howtogeek.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  4. ^ "The status of CentOS mirrors". centos.org. January 15, 2015. Archived from the original on December 31, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  5. ^ "The LWN.net Linux Distribution List". LWN.net. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  6. ^ "DistroWatch.com: Put the fun back into computing. Use Linux, BSD". distrowatch.com. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
  7. ^ Jim Martin. "How to install Ubuntu Touch on your Android phone or tablet". PC Advisor. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  8. ^ David Hayward. "Install Linux on your x86 tablet: five distros to choose from". TechRadar. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  9. ^ Brian Proffitt (February 3, 2010). "The Top 7 Best Linux Distributions for You". linux.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
  10. ^ Eric Brown (November 4, 2014). "Mobile Linux Distros Keep on Morphing". linux.com. Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
  11. ^ "Debian and Other Distros". debian.org. December 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2015.

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