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Industrial design

Calculator Olivetti Divisumma 24 designed in 1956 by Marcello Nizzoli

Industrial design is a process of design applied to physical products that are to be manufactured by mass production.[1][2] It is the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features, which takes place in advance of the manufacture or production of the product. In contrast, manufacture consists purely of repeated, often automated, replication,[3][4] while craft-based design is a process or approach in which the form of the product is determined by the product's creator largely concurrent with the act of its production.[5]

All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the nature of this process can vary. It can be conducted by an individual or a team, and such a team could include people with varied expertise (e.g. designers, engineers, business experts, etc.). It can emphasize intuitive creativity or calculated scientific decision-making, and often emphasizes a mix of both. It can be influenced by factors as varied as materials, production processes, business strategy, and prevailing social, commercial, or aesthetic attitudes.[3] Industrial design, as an applied art, most often focuses on a combination of aesthetics and user-focused considerations,[6] but also often provides solutions for problems of form, function, physical ergonomics, marketing, brand development, sustainability, and sales.[7]

  1. ^ Heskett 1980, pp. 10–11.
  2. ^ Kirkham 1999.
  3. ^ a b Heskett 1980, p. 10.
  4. ^ Noblet 1993, pp. 21–22.
  5. ^ Noblet 1993, p. 21.
  6. ^ "Usability glossary | Usability Body of Knowledge". usabilitybok.org.
  7. ^ de Noblet, J., Industrial Design, Paris: A.F.A.A. (1993)

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