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Debian OpenLogo
Screenshot of Debian 11 (Bullseye) with the GNOME desktop environment 3.38
Debian 11 (Bullseye) running its default desktop environment, GNOME version 3.38
DeveloperThe Debian Project
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source
Initial releaseSeptember 1993 (1993-09)
Latest release11.1 (Bullseye)[1] (October 9, 2021 (2021-10-09)) [±]
Latest preview12 (Bookworm)[2]
Available in75 languages
Update methodLong-term support in stable edition, rolling release in unstable and testing editions
Package managerAPT (front-end), dpkg
Platformsx86-64, arm64, armel[a], armhf, i386, mips, mipsel, mips64el, ppc64el, s390x,[3] riscv64 (in progress)[4]
Kernel typeLinux kernel
user interface
  • GNOME on DVD
  • XFCE on CD and non-Linux ports
  • MATE available on Debian's website
  • KDE Plasma available on Debian's website
  • LXQt available on Debian's website
  • LXDE available on Debian's website
  • Cinnamon available on Debian's website
LicenseDFSG-compatible licenses
Official websitewww.debian.org Edit this at Wikidata

Debian (/ˈdɛbiən/),[5][6] also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a GNU/Linux distribution composed of free and open-source software, developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. The first version of Debian (0.01) was released on September 15, 1993,[7] and its first stable version (1.1) was released on June 17, 1996.[8] The Debian Stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and servers. Debian is also the basis for many other distributions, most notably Ubuntu.

Debian is one of the oldest operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The project is coordinated over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, and the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, and the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze.

Since its founding, Debian has been developed openly and distributed freely according to the principles of the GNU Project. Because of this, the Free Software Foundation sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995. When the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit organization Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.

  1. ^ "Updated Debian 11: 11.1 released". Debian News. Debian. October 9, 2021. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
  2. ^ "Debian Release Notes". debian.org. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2021.
  3. ^ "Debian -- Ports". Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  4. ^ "RISC-V - Debian Wiki". Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  5. ^ "How does one pronounce Debian and what does this word mean?". The Debian GNU/Linux FAQ -- Chapter 1 – Definitions and overview. Debian. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  6. ^ "Debian -- About". Debian. Debian. Archived from the original on January 17, 1999. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  7. ^ "ChangeLog". ibiblio. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  8. ^ "Chapter 3 – Debian Releases". A Brief History of Debian. Debian Documentation Team. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2016.

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