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Augmented reality

Photograph of the first AR system
Virtual Fixtures – first AR system, U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (1992)

Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including visual, auditory, haptic, somatosensory and olfactory.[1][2] AR can be defined as a system that incorporates three basic features: a combination of real and virtual worlds, real-time interaction, and accurate 3D registration of virtual and real objects.[3] The overlaid sensory information can be constructive (i.e. additive to the natural environment), or destructive (i.e. masking of the natural environment).[4] This experience is seamlessly interwoven with the physical world such that it is perceived as an immersive aspect of the real environment.[4] In this way, augmented reality alters one's ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real-world environment with a simulated one.[5][6] Augmented reality is related to two largely synonymous terms: mixed reality and computer-mediated reality.

The primary value of augmented reality is the manner in which components of the digital world blend into a person's perception of the real world, not as a simple display of data, but through the integration of immersive sensations, which are perceived as natural parts of an environment. The earliest functional AR systems that provided immersive mixed reality experiences for users were invented in the early 1990s, starting with the Virtual Fixtures system developed at the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Laboratory in 1992.[4][7][8] Commercial augmented reality experiences were first introduced in entertainment and gaming businesses.[9] Subsequently, augmented reality applications have spanned commercial industries such as education, communications, medicine, and entertainment. In education, content may be accessed by scanning or viewing an image with a mobile device or by using markerless AR techniques.[10][11][12]

Augmented reality is used to enhance natural environments or situations and offer perceptually enriched experiences. With the help of advanced AR technologies (e.g. adding computer vision, incorporating AR cameras into smartphone applications and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulated. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual. Augmented Reality is any experience which is artificial and which adds to the already existing reality.[13][14][15][16][17] or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space.[18][19][20] Augmented reality also has a lot of potential in the gathering and sharing of tacit knowledge. Augmentation techniques are typically performed in real time and in semantic contexts with environmental elements. Immersive perceptual information is sometimes combined with supplemental information like scores over a live video feed of a sporting event. This combines the benefits of both augmented reality technology and heads up display technology (HUD).

  1. ^ "The Lengthy History of Augmented Reality". Huffington Post. 15 May 2016.
  2. ^ Schueffel, Patrick (2017). The Concise Fintech Compendium. Fribourg: School of Management Fribourg/Switzerland. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  3. ^ Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Liang, Jyh-Chong (March 2013). "Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education...". Computers & Education. 62: 41–49. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.024.
  4. ^ a b c Rosenberg, Louis B. (1992). "The Use of Virtual Fixtures as Perceptual Overlays to Enhance Operator Performance in Remote Environments".
  5. ^ Steuer,"Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2018., Department of Communication, Stanford University. 15 October 1993.
  6. ^ Introducing Virtual Environments Archived 21 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois.
  7. ^ Rosenberg, L.B. (1993). "Virtual fixtures: Perceptual tools for telerobotic manipulation". Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium. pp. 76–82. doi:10.1109/VRAIS.1993.380795. ISBN 0-7803-1363-1. S2CID 9856738.
  8. ^ Dupzyk, Kevin (6 September 2016). "I Saw the Future Through Microsoft's Hololens". Popular Mechanics.
  9. ^ Arai, Kohei, ed. (2022), "Augmented Reality: Reflections at Thirty Years", Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (FTC) 2021, Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 358, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-89906-6_1, ISBN 978-3-030-89905-9, S2CID 239881216
  10. ^ Moro, Christian; Birt, James; Stromberga, Zane; Phelps, Charlotte; Clark, Justin; Glasziou, Paul; Scott, Anna Mae (2021). "Virtual and Augmented Reality Enhancements to Medical and Science Student Physiology and Anatomy Test Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis". Anatomical Sciences Education. 14 (3): 368–376. doi:10.1002/ase.2049. ISSN 1935-9772. PMID 33378557. S2CID 229929326.
  11. ^ "How to Transform Your Classroom with Augmented Reality - EdSurge News". 2 November 2015.
  12. ^ Crabben, Jan van der (16 October 2018). "Why We Need More Tech in History Education". ancient.eu. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  13. ^ Hegde, Naveen (11 June 2021). "What is Augmented Reality". ANT Developers. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  14. ^ Chen, Brian (25 August 2009). "If You're Not Seeing Data, You're Not Seeing". Wired. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  15. ^ Maxwell, Kerry. "Augmented Reality". macmillandictionary.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  16. ^ "Augmented Reality (AR)". augmentedrealityon.com. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  17. ^ Azuma, Ronald (August 1997). "A Survey of Augmented Reality" (PDF). Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. MIT Press. 6 (4): 355–385. doi:10.1162/pres.1997.6.4.355. S2CID 469744. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  18. ^ Phenomenal Augmented Reality, IEEE Consumer Electronics, Volume 4, No. 4, October 2015, cover+pp92-97
  19. ^ Time-frequency perspectives, with applications, in Advances in Machine Vision, Strategies and Applications, World Scientific Series in Computer Science: Volume 32, C Archibald and Emil Petriu, Cover + pp 99–128, 1992.
  20. ^ Mann, Steve; Feiner, Steve; Harner, Soren; Ali, Mir Adnan; Janzen, Ryan; Hansen, Jayse; Baldassi, Stefano (15 January 2015). "Wearable Computing, 3D Aug* Reality, Photographic/Videographic Gesture Sensing, and Veillance". Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction - TEI '14. ACM. pp. 497–500. doi:10.1145/2677199.2683590. ISBN 9781450333054. S2CID 12247969.

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