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Java (software platform)

Java (software platform)
Original author(s)James Gosling, Sun Microsystems
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Initial releaseJanuary 23, 1996 (1996-01-23)[1][2]
Stable release19.0.1 (October 18, 2022 (2022-10-18)) [±]

17.0.5 LTS (October 18, 2022 (2022-10-18)) [±]
11.0.17 LTS (October 18, 2022 (2022-10-18)[3]) [±]

8u351 LTS (October 18, 2022 (2022-10-18)[4]) [±]
Written inJava, C++, C, assembly language[5]
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows, Linux, macOS,[6] and for old versions: Solaris
Platformx64, ARMv8, and for old versions: ARMv7, IA-32, SPARC (up to Java 14) (Java 8 includes 32-bit support for Windows – while no longer supported freely by Oracle for commercial use)[6]
Available inEnglish, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish[7]
TypeSoftware platform
LicenseDual-license: GNU General Public License version 2 with classpath exception,[8] and a proprietary license.[9]
Websiteoracle.com/java/, java.com, dev.java
A Java-powered program

Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. Java applets, which are less common than standalone Java applications, were commonly run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications through being embedded in HTML pages.

Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as byte code in a Java virtual machine (JVM); byte code compilers are also available for other languages, including Ada, JavaScript, Python, and Ruby. In addition, several languages have been designed to run natively on the JVM, including Clojure, Groovy, and Scala. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk and Objective-C.[10] Java eschews certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where objects are allocated on the heap (while some implementations e.g. all currently supported by Oracle, may use escape analysis optimization to allocate on the stack instead) and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM.

On November 13, 2006, Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).[11][12]

The latest version is Java 19, released in September 2022, while Java 17, the latest long-term support (LTS), was released in September 2021. As an open source platform, Java has many distributors, including Amazon, IBM, Azul Systems, and AdoptOpenJDK. Distributions include Amazon Corretto, Zulu, AdoptOpenJDK, and Liberica. Regarding Oracle, it distributes Java 8, and also makes available e.g. Java 11, both also currently supported LTS versions. Oracle (and others) "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java" than Java 8,[13] because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[14][15][16] Since Java 9 (as well as versions 10-16, and 18-19) are no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to a supported version. Oracle released the last free-for-commercial-use public update for the legacy Java 8 LTS in January 2019, and will continue to support Java 8 with public updates for personal use indefinitely. Oracle extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018.[17]

  1. ^ "JavaSoft ships Java 1.0" (Press release). Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  2. ^ Ortiz, C. Enrique; Giguère, Éric (2001). Mobile Information Device Profile for Java 2 Micro Edition: Developer's Guide (PDF). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471034650. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  3. ^ "JDK Releases". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  4. ^ "JDK Releases". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  5. ^ "HotSpot Group". Openjdk.java.net. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  6. ^ a b "Oracle JDK 8 and JRE 8 Certified System Configurations Contents". Oracle.com. April 8, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  7. ^ "Java SE 7 Supported Locales". Oracle.com. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  8. ^ "OpenJDK: GPLv2 + Classpath Exception". Openjdk.java.net. April 1, 1989. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  9. ^ "BCL For Java SE". Oracle.com. April 2, 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  10. ^ Naughton, Patrick. "Java Was Strongly Influenced by Objective-C". Virtual School. Archived from the original on August 13, 2012.
  11. ^ "Sun Opens Java". Sun Microsystems. November 13, 2006. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
  12. ^ O'Hair, Kelly (December 2010). "OpenJDK7 and OpenJDK6 Binary Plugs Logic Removed". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  13. ^ "Why should I uninstall older versions of Java from my system?". www.java.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  14. ^ "Why should I uninstall older versions of Java from my system?". Oracle. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference remote exploit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Homeland Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Alexander, Christopher. "Java SE 6 Advanced". www.oracle.com. Retrieved May 20, 2018.

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