Crimea

Crimean Peninsula
Satellite picture of Crimea, Terra-MODIS, 05-16-2015.jpg
May 2015 satellite image of the Crimean Peninsula
Crimea (orthographic projection).svg
Geography
LocationEastern Europe
Coordinates45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E / 45.3; 34.4Coordinates: 45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E / 45.3; 34.4
Adjacent bodies of water
Largest citySevastopol
Area27,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,545 m (5,069 ft)
Administration
StatusControlled and governed as part of the Russian Federation (except Ukrainian-controlled part of Arabat Spit), though internationally recognised as part of Ukraine
Ukraine (de jure)
RegionsKherson Oblast (northern part of Arabat Spit, Henichesk Raion)
Uncontrolled regionsAutonomous Republic of Crimea
Sevastopol
Russia (de facto)
Federal districtSouthern Federal District
Federal subjectsRepublic of Crimea
Sevastopol[1]
Demographics
DemonymCrimean
Population2,284,000[2] (2014 census)
Pop. density84.6/km2 (219.1/sq mi)
Ethnic groups65.3% Russians (1.492 mln)
15.1% Ukrainians (344.5 thousand)
10.8% Crimean Tatars (246.1 thousand)
0.9% Belarusians (21.7 thousand)
0.5% Armenians (11 thousand)
7.4% Others (169.1 thousand), including:
Pontic Greeks
Krymchaks
Crimean Karaites
Ashkenazi Jews
Crimea Germans
Italians of Crimea (2014)[3][4][5]
Map of the Crimean Peninsula
The Flag of Crimea republic (de jure Autonomous Republic of Crimea or de facto Republic of Crimea, depending on jurisdiction) used under Russia and Ukraine

Crimea (/krˈmə/; Russian: Крым; Ukrainian: Крим, romanizedKrym; Crimean Tatar: Къырым, romanized: Kirim/Qırım; Ancient Greek: Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, romanizedKimmería/Taurikḗ) is a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. The status of Crimea is disputed. It is claimed by Ukraine and recognized as Ukrainian by most other countries, although it is administered by Russia following its annexation in 2014. Crimea is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge since 2018. The Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania, and to its south, Turkey.

Crimea (or Tauric Peninsula, as it was called from antiquity until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Goths, Alans, Bulgars, Huns, Khazars, Kipchaks, Mongols and the Golden Horde. Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century.

In 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide by Ukraine and 3 other countries. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR.[6]

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was reestablished as an independent state in 1991, and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine. The 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol. Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas.

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, Russia annexed Crimea after a military intervention by pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces.[7] A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions,[8][9][10] was held on the issue of reunification with Russia; its official results showed majority support for reunification, however, the vote was boycotted by many loyal to Ukraine[11][12] and declared illegitimate by Western governments and the United Nations. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.[13]

  1. ^ "Treaty to accept Crimea, Sevastopol to Russian Federation signed". rt.com. Autonomous Nonprofit Organization "TV-Novosti". 18 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
  2. ^ "Results of Census: Population of Crimea is 2.284 Million People". en.krymedia.ru. Archived from the original on 4 November 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Катастрофический фактор | Все блоги | Блоги | Каспаров.Ru". Kasparov.ru. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Why Did Russia Give Away Crimea Sixty Years Ago?, Mark Kramer, The Wilson Center, 19 March 2014
  7. ^ "Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club". Kremlin.ru. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. I will be frank; we used our Armed Forces to block Ukrainian units stationed in Crimea
  8. ^ КС признал неконституционным постановление крымского парламента о вхождении АРК в состав РФ и проведении референдума о статусе автономии [Constitutional Court of Ukraine deemed Crimean parliament resolution on accession of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and holding of the Crimean status referendum unconstitutional] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 14 March 2014.
    "Judgement of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine on all-Crimean referendum". Embassy of Ukraine in the United States of America. 15 March 2014.
  9. ^ Tokarev, Alexey (2014). Электоральная история постсоветского Крыма: от УССР до России [The electoral history of the post-Soviet Crimea: from Ukrainian SSR to Russia] (PDF). MGIMO Review of International Relations (in Russian). 5 (44): 32–41. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Спустя 22 года и 364 дня после первого в СССР референдума в автономной республике Украины Крым состоялся последний референдум. Проводился он вопреки украинскому законодательству, не предусматривающему понятия региональный референдум и предписывающему решать территориальные вопросы только на всеукраинском референдуме
  10. ^ Marxen, Christian (2014). "The Crimea Crisis – An International Law Perspective" (PDF). Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht (Heidelberg Journal of International Law). 74. Organizing and holding the referendum on Crimea's accession to Russia was illegal under the Ukrainian constitution. Article 2 of the constitution establishes that "Ukraine shall be a unitary state" and that the "territory of Ukraine within its present border is indivisible and inviolable". This is confirmed in regard to Crimea by Chapter X of the constitution, which provides for the autonomous status of Crimea. Article 134 sets forth that Crimea is an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine". The autonomous status provides Crimea with a certain set of authorities and allows, inter alia, to hold referendums. These rights are, however, limited to local matters. The constitution makes clear that alterations to the territory of Ukraine require an all-Ukrainian referendum.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC Voters was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference Collett-White was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Распоряжение Президента Российской Федерации от 17 March 2014 № 63-рп 'О подписании Договора между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов'. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2016.

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