Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5]

Open source promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms. Open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet.[8] The open-source software movement arose to clarify copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues.

Generally, open source refers to a computer program in which the source code is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community. Code is released under the terms of a software license. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community.

Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the Apache Software Foundation, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework Apache Hadoop and the open-source HTTP server Apache HTTP.

  1. ^ Levine, Sheen S.; Prietula, M. J. (2013). "Open Collaboration for Innovation: Principles and Performance". Organization Science. 25 (5): 1414–1433. arXiv:1406.7541. doi:10.1287/orsc.2013.0872. S2CID 6583883. SSRN 1096442.
  2. ^ Raymond, Eric S. (2001). The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. OReilly. ISBN 978-0-596-00108-7.[page needed]
  3. ^ Pearce, Joshua M (2012). "The Case for Open Source Appropriate Technology". Environment, Development and Sustainability. 14 (3): 425–431. doi:10.1007/s10668-012-9337-9.
  4. ^ "Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open-source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009
  5. ^ "Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium
  6. ^ Lakhani, K.R.; von Hippel, E. (June 2003). "How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance". Research Policy. 32 (6): 923–943. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00095-1. hdl:1721.1/70028.
  7. ^ Gerber, A.; Molefo, O.; Van der Merwe, A. (2010). "Documenting open-source migration processes for re-use". In Kotze, P.; Gerber, A.; van der Merwe, A.; et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the SAICSIT 2010 Conference — Fountains of Computing Research. ACM Press. pp. 75–85. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/1899503.1899512. ISBN 978-1-60558-950-3. S2CID 11970697.
  8. ^ Weber 2004[page needed]

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