Finland

Republic of Finland

Anthem: 
Maamme  (Finnish)
Vårt land  (Swedish)
(English: "Our Land")
EU-Finland (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Finland.svg
Location of Finland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Helsinki
60°10′N 24°56′E / 60.167°N 24.933°E / 60.167; 24.933
Official languagesFinnishSwedish
Recognised regional languagesSámi
Religion
Evangelical Lutheran Church
Orthodox Church
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic[1]
• President
Sauli Niinistö
Sanna Marin
LegislatureEduskunta/Riksdagen
Formation
29 March 1809
6 December 1917
• Civil War
against Red Finland
Jan – May 1918
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
338,455 km2 (130,678 sq mi) (64th)
• Water (%)
10
Population
• May 2020 estimate
Increase 5,528,737[2] (116th)
• Density
16/km2 (41.4/sq mi) (213th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$257 billion[3] (60th)
• Per capita
$46,559[3] (24th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$277 billion[3] (43rd)
• Per capita
$50,068[3] (14th)
Gini (2019)Negative increase 26.2[4]
low · 6th
HDI (2018)Increase 0.925[5]
very high · 12th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatd.m.yyyy[6]
Driving sideright
Calling code+358
ISO 3166 codeFI
Internet TLD.fia
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Finland (Finnish: Suomi [ˈsuo̯mi] (About this soundlisten); Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪ̌nland] (About this soundlisten), Finland Swedish: [ˈfinlɑnd]), officially the Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland (About this soundlisten to all)),[note 1] is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. Finland shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north and is defined by the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the south that are part of the Baltic Sea. Finland has a population of approximately 5.5 million, making it the 25th-most populous country in Europe. With an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi), Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe, and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Helsinki, the capital of Finland, is the largest city in the country.

Finland is a parliamentary republic consisting of 19 regions and 310 municipalities.[7] The archipelago of the Åland Islands located southwest of the mainland is the only autonomous region of Finland. The climate in Finland varies due to the country's relatively vast latitudinal differences; southern Finland is classified as having a humid continental climate with the rest of the country being characterised by a boreal climate. Finland can be considered to have a mainly boreal forest biome. More than 180,000 Finnish lakes have been recorded, which is why Finland is internationally called "the land of a thousand lakes".[8]

The majority of the population lives in central and southern Finland with over 1.5 million people living in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces a third of the country's GDP. The main language is Finnish,[9] a Finnic language of the Uralic language family, which is unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Swedish is the second official language of Finland, and is mainly spoken in certain coastal areas of the country and on Åland.

Finland was first inhabited around the end of the most recent ice age, approximately around 9000 BC.[10] The Comb Ceramic culture introduced pottery in 5200 BC and the Corded Ware culture coincided with the start of agriculture between 3000 and 2500 BC. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in Fennoscandia and the Baltic region. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland, Tavastia and Karelia.[11] From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden as a consequence of the Northern Crusades and the Swedish colonisation of coastal Finland, the legacy of which is reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.

In 1809, Finland was annexed by the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, during which Finnish art flourished and at the same time the basic pillars were created without knowing about future independence. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.[12][13] Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russian Empire, tried russificate Finland and also terminate its political autonomy, but following the 1917 Russian Revolution make end to his rule, and Finland declared itself independent from the empire. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by the Finnish Civil War, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guards, supported by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, fighting against the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War, and the Nazi Germany in the Lapland War, with Marshal Mannerheim as the absolute commander-in-chief of the aforementioned wars. After the war, Finland lost part of its territory, but maintained her independence.

Finland largely remained an agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the country rapidly industrialised and developed an advanced economy, while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and a high per capita income.[14] Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and adopted an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994,[15] the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997,[15] and the Eurozone at its inception in 1999.

Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development.[16][17][18][19] In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital[20] and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index,[21] and second in the Global Gender Gap Report.[22] It also ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018, 2019 and 2020.[23][24]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference Parliamentary was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Finland's preliminary population figure 5,528,737 at the end of April". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. 17 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  6. ^ Ajanilmaukset Archived 2017-10-20 at the Wayback Machine Kielikello 2/2006. Institute for the Languages of Finland. Retrieved 2017-10-20
  7. ^ "Kotisivu - Kuntaliiton Kunnat.net" (in Finnish). Suomen Kuntaliitto. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  8. ^ Li, Leslie (16 April 1989). "A Land of a Thousand Lakes". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  9. ^ "Finland in Figures > Population". stat.fi. Statistics Finland. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  10. ^ Georg Haggren; Petri Halinen; Mika Lavento; Sami Raninen; Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 23. ISBN 978-952-495-363-4.
  11. ^ Georg Haggren; Petri Halinen; Mika Lavento; Sami Raninen; Anna Wessman (2015). Muinaisuutemme jäljet. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. p. 339. ISBN 9789524953634.
  12. ^ Parliament of Finland. "History of the Finnish Parliament". eduskunta.fi. Archived from the original on 6 December 2015.
  13. ^ Finland was the first nation in the world to give all (adult) citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office, in 1906. New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all (adult) citizens the right to vote, in 1893. But women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature, until 1919.
  14. ^ "Finland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  15. ^ a b Relations with Finland. NATO (13 January 2016)
  16. ^ "Finland: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
  17. ^ "Tertiary education graduation rates—Education: Key Tables from OECD". OECD iLibrary. 14 June 2010. doi:10.1787/20755120-table1. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ "Her er verdens mest konkurransedyktige land—Makro og politikk". E24.no. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  19. ^ "The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index". Prosperity.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  20. ^ "Human Capital Report 2015". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  21. ^ "Fragile States Index 2016". Fundforpeace.org. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  22. ^ Gender Gap Report (PDF). WEF.
  23. ^ Hetter, Katia (26 March 2019). "This is the world's happiest country in 2019". CNN. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  24. ^ Helliwell, John F.; Sachs, Jeffrey; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel, eds. (2020). "World Happiness Report 2020" (PDF). New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Retrieved 30 April 2020.


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