Paradigmevent-driven, functional, imperative
Designed byBrendan Eich initially, plus other key contributors to the ECMAScript specification
First appearedDecember 4, 1995 (1995-12-04)[1]
Stable release
ECMAScript 2020[2] / June 2020 (2020-06)
Preview release
ECMAScript 2021
Typing disciplineDynamic, duck
Filename extensions
  • .js
  • .cjs
  • .mjs[3]
Major implementations
V8, JavaScriptCore, SpiderMonkey, Chakra
Influenced by
AWK,[4] C, HyperTalk, Java,[5] Lua, Perl, Python, Scheme, Self
ActionScript, AtScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, JScript .NET, LiveScript, Objective-J, Opa, QML, Raku, TypeScript

JavaScript (/ˈɑːvəˌskrɪpt/),[6] often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification.[7] JavaScript is high-level, often just-in-time compiled, and multi-paradigm. It has curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions. It is a zero-index programming language.

Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web.[8] JavaScript enables interactive web pages and is an essential part of web applications. The vast majority of websites use it for client-side page behavior,[9] and all major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute it.

As a multi-paradigm language, JavaScript supports event-driven, functional, and imperative programming styles. It has application programming interfaces (APIs) for working with text, dates, regular expressions, standard data structures, and the Document Object Model (DOM). However, ECMAScript itself does not include any input/output (I/O), such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, as the host environment (usually a web browser) provides those APIs.

JavaScript engines were originally used only in web browsers, but they are now embedded in some servers, usually via Node.js. They are also embedded in a variety of applications created with frameworks such as Electron and Cordova.

Although there are similarities between JavaScript and Java, including language name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design.

  1. ^ Press release announcing JavaScript, "Netscape and Sun announce JavaScript", PR Newswire, December 4, 1995
  2. ^ "Standard ECMA-262". Ecma International. June 17, 2020.
  3. ^ "nodejs/node-eps". GitHub.
  4. ^ "Brendan Eich: An Introduction to JavaScript, JSConf 2010". p. 22m. Retrieved November 25, 2019. Eich: "function", eight letters, I was influenced by AWK.
  5. ^ Seibel, Peter (September 16, 2009). Coders at Work: Reflections on the Craft of Programming. ISBN 9781430219484. Retrieved December 25, 2018. Eich: The immediate concern at Netscape was it must look like Java.
  6. ^ "JavaScript". Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition. William Collins Sons & Co. 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  7. ^ "ECMAScript® 2020 Language Specification".
  8. ^ Flanagan, David. JavaScript - The definitive guide (6 ed.). p. 1. JavaScript is part of the triad of technologies that all Web developers must learn: HTML to specify the content of web pages, CSS to specify the presentation of web pages and JavaScript to specify the behaviour of web pages.
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference deployedstats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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