Java (software platform)

Java (software platform)
The Java technology logo
The Java technology logo
Original author(s)James Gosling, Sun Microsystems
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Initial release14 April 1998 (1998-04-14)[1][2]
Stable release15 (September 15, 2020 (2020-09-15)[3]) [±]

11.0.8 (July 7, 2020 (2020-07-07)[4]) [±]

8u265 (July 24, 2020 (2020-07-24)[5]) [±]
Preview release16+8 (July 29, 2020 (2020-07-29)[6]) [±]
Written inJava, C++, C, assembly language[7]
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows, Solaris, Linux, macOS[8]
PlatformIA-32, x64, ARMv7, ARMv8, SPARC (up to Java 14) (Java 8 includes 32-bit support – while no longer supported freely by Oracle for commercial use – 32-bit platforms are not supported in other versions, since dropped officially in Java 10.)[8]
Available inEnglish, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish[9]
TypeSoftware platform
LicenseDual-license: GNU General Public License version 2 with classpath exception,[10] and a proprietary license.[11]
A Java-powered program

Java is a set of computer software and specifications developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which was later acquired by the Oracle Corporation, that provides a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform computing environment. Java is used in a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded devices and mobile phones to enterprise servers and supercomputers. Java applets, which are less common than standalone Java applications, were commonly run in secure, sandboxed environments to provide many features of native applications through being embedded in HTML pages.

Writing in the Java programming language is the primary way to produce code that will be deployed as byte code in a Java virtual machine (JVM); byte code compilers are also available for other languages, including Ada, JavaScript, Python, and Ruby. In addition, several languages have been designed to run natively on the JVM, including Clojure, Groovy, and Scala. Java syntax borrows heavily from C and C++, but object-oriented features are modeled after Smalltalk and Objective-C.[12] Java eschews certain low-level constructs such as pointers and has a very simple memory model where objects are allocated on the heap (while some implementations e.g. all currently supported by Oracle, may use escape analysis optimization to allocate on the stack instead) and all variables of object types are references. Memory management is handled through integrated automatic garbage collection performed by the JVM.

On November 13, 2006, Sun Microsystems made the bulk of its implementation of Java available under the GNU General Public License (GPL).[13][14]

The latest version is Java 15, released in September 2020. Java, being an Open Source platform has many distributors, like Amazon, IBM, Azul Systems, AdoptOpenJDK, and many others with free and commercial support distributions (Amazon Correto, Zulu, AdoptOpenJDK, Liberica, etc), but regarding to the Oracle distribution, Java 11, is the currently supported long-term support (LTS) version ("Oracle Customers will receive Oracle Premier Support"), released on September 25, 2018. Oracle (and others) "highly recommend that you uninstall older versions of Java",[15] because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[16][17][18] Since Java 9 (and 10) is no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to "immediately transition" to Java 11 (Java 15 is also a non-LTS option). Oracle released the last free-for-commercial-use public update for the legacy Java 8 LTS in January 2019, and will continue to support Java 8 with public updates for personal use until at least December 2020. Oracle extended support for Java 6 ended in December 2018.[19]

  1. ^ "JavaSoft ships Java 1.0" (Press release). Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  2. ^ Ortiz, C. Enrique; Giguère, Éric (2001). Mobile Information Device Profile for Java 2 Micro Edition: Developer's Guide (PDF). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471034650. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
  3. ^ "JDK 15". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2020-09-15.
  4. ^ "OpenJDK 11 Updates". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  5. ^ "OpenJDK 8 Updates". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  6. ^ "JDK 16 Early-Access Builds". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  7. ^ "HotSpot Group". Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  8. ^ a b "Oracle JDK 8 and JRE 8 Certified System Configurations Contents". 2014-04-08. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  9. ^ "Java SE 7 Supported Locales". Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  10. ^ "OpenJDK: GPLv2 + Classpath Exception". 1989-04-01. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  11. ^ "BCL For Java SE". 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  12. ^ Naughton, Patrick. "Java Was Strongly Influenced by Objective-C". Virtual School. Archived from the original on 2012-09-03.
  13. ^ "Sun Opens Java". Sun Microsystems. 13 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-05-13.
  14. ^ O'Hair, Kelly (December 2010). "OpenJDK7 and OpenJDK6 Binary Plugs Logic Removed". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  15. ^ "Why should I uninstall older versions of Java from my system?". Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  16. ^ "Why should I uninstall older versions of Java from my system?". Oracle. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference remote exploit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Homeland Security was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Alexander, Christopher. "Java SE 6 Advanced". Retrieved 2018-05-20.

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