Java (programming language)

Java Programming Language
Java programming language logo.svg
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, reflective
Designed byJames Gosling
DeveloperOracle Corporation et al.
First appearedMay 23, 1995 (1995-05-23)[1]
Stable release
Java SE 15[2] / September 15, 2020 (2020-09-15)
Typing disciplineStatic, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
Filename, .class, .jar
Influenced by
CLU,[3] Simula67,[3] LISP,[3] SmallTalk,[3] Ada 83, C++,[4] C#,[5] Eiffel,[6] Mesa,[7] Modula-3,[8] Oberon,[9] Objective-C,[10] UCSD Pascal,[11][12] Object Pascal[13]
Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Chapel,[14] Clojure, ECMAScript, Fantom, Gambas,[15] Groovy, Hack,[16] Haxe, J#, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala

Java is a class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA),[17] meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.[18] Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. As of 2019, Java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to GitHub,[19][20] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[21]

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Oracle offers its own HotSpot Java Virtual Machine, however the official reference implementation is the OpenJDK JVM which is free open source software and used by most developers including the Eclipse IDE and is the default JVM for almost all Linux distributions.

The latest versions are Java 14, released in March 2020, and Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018; Oracle released for the legacy Java 8 LTS the last free public update in January 2019 for commercial use, while it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use up to at least December 2020. Oracle (and others) highly recommend uninstalling older versions of Java because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[22] Since Java 9, 10, 12 and 13 are no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to immediately transition to the latest version (currently Java 14) or an LTS release.

  1. ^ Binstock, Andrew (May 20, 2015). "Java's 20 Years of Innovation". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  2. ^ "The Arrival of Java 15!". Oracle. September 15, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d Barbara Liskov with John Guttag (2000). Program Development in Java - Abstraction, Specification, and Object-Oriented Design. USA, Addison Wesley. ISBN 9780201657685.
  4. ^ Chaudhary, Harry H. (July 28, 2014). "Cracking The Java Programming Interview :: 2000+ Java Interview Que/Ans". Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  5. ^ Java 5.0 added several new language features (the enhanced for loop, autoboxing, varargs and annotations), after they were introduced in the similar (and competing) C# language. [1] Archived March 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine [2] Archived January 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Gosling, James; McGilton, Henry (May 1996). "The Java Language Environment". Archived from the original on May 6, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  7. ^ Gosling, James; Joy, Bill; Steele, Guy; Bracha, Gilad. "The Java Language Specification, 2nd Edition". Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
  8. ^ "The A-Z of Programming Languages: Modula-3". Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  9. ^ Niklaus Wirth stated on a number of public occasions, e.g. in a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum, Moscow in September 2005 (several independent first-hand accounts in Russian exist, e.g. one with an audio recording: Filippova, Elena (September 22, 2005). "Niklaus Wirth's lecture at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow".), that the Sun Java design team licensed the Oberon compiler sources a number of years prior to the release of Java and examined it: a (relative) compactness, type safety, garbage collection, no multiple inheritance for classes – all these key overall design features are shared by Java and Oberon.
  10. ^ Patrick Naughton cites Objective-C as a strong influence on the design of the Java programming language, stating that notable direct derivatives include Java interfaces (derived from Objective-C's protocol) and primitive wrapper classes. [3] Archived July 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ TechMetrix Research (1999). "History of Java" (PDF). Java Application Servers Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2010. The project went ahead under the name green and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code.
  12. ^ "A Conversation with James Gosling – ACM Queue". August 31, 2004. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
  13. ^ In the summer of 1996, Sun was designing the precursor to what is now the event model of the AWT and the JavaBeans component architecture. Borland contributed greatly to this process. We looked very carefully at Delphi Object Pascal and built a working prototype of bound method references in order to understand their interaction with the Java programming language and its APIs.White Paper About Microsoft's Delegates
  14. ^ "Chapel spec (Acknowledgements)" (PDF). Cray Inc. October 1, 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  15. ^ "Gambas Documentation Introduction". Gambas Website. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 9, 2017.
  16. ^ "Facebook Q&A: Hack brings static typing to PHP world". InfoWorld. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
  17. ^ "Write once, run anywhere?". Computer Weekly. May 2, 2002. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  18. ^ "1.2 Design Goals of the Java™ Programming Language". Oracle. January 1, 1999. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  19. ^ McMillan, Robert (August 1, 2013). "Is Java Losing Its Mojo?". Archived from the original on February 15, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017. Java is on the wane, at least according to one outfit that keeps on eye on the ever-changing world of computer programming languages. For more than a decade, it has dominated the TIOBE Programming Community Index, and is back on top – a snapshot of software developer enthusiasm that looks at things like internet search results to measure how much buzz different languages have. But lately, Java has been slipping.
  20. ^ Chan, Rosalie (January 22, 2019). "The 10 most popular programming languages, according to the 'Facebook for programmers'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  21. ^ "JavaOne 2013 Review: Java Takes on the Internet of Things". Archived from the original on April 19, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2016. Alt URL
  22. ^ "Why should I uninstall older versions of Java from my system?". Oracle. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

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