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International standardRFC 7540
Developed byIETF
IntroducedMay 14, 2015 (2015-05-14)

HTTP/2 (originally named HTTP/2.0) is a major revision of the HTTP network protocol used by the World Wide Web. It was derived from the earlier experimental SPDY protocol, originally developed by Google.[1][2] HTTP/2 was developed by the HTTP Working Group (also called httpbis, where "bis" means "second") of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[3][4][5] HTTP/2 is the first new version of HTTP since HTTP 1.1, which was standardized in RFC 2068 in 1997. The Working Group presented HTTP/2 to the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) for consideration as a Proposed Standard in December 2014,[6][7] and IESG approved it to publish as Proposed Standard on February 17, 2015 (and was updated in Feb. 2020 in regard to TLS 1.3).[8][9] The HTTP/2 specification was published as RFC 7540 on May 14, 2015.[10]

The standardization effort was supported by Chrome, Opera, Firefox,[11] Internet Explorer 11, Safari, Amazon Silk, and Edge browsers.[12] Most major browsers had added HTTP/2 support by the end of 2015.[13] About 98% of web browsers used have the capability,[14] while according to W3Techs, as of August 2020, 47% of the top 10 million websites supported HTTP/2.[15]

Its proposed successor is HTTP/3, a major revision that builds on the concepts established by HTTP/2.[16][2] Support for HTTP/3 was added to Chrome in September 2019 (and Cloudflare has also added support for it), and while HTTP/3 is not yet on by default in any browser, in 2020, HTTP/3 has non-default support in stable versions of Chrome and Firefox and can be enabled.[17][18][19]

  1. ^ Bright, Peter (February 18, 2015). "HTTP/2 finished, coming to browsers within weeks". Ars Technica.
  2. ^ a b Cimpanu, Catalin. "HTTP-over-QUIC to be renamed HTTP/3 | ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  3. ^ Thomson, M. (ed.), Belshe M. and R. Peon. "Hypertext Transfer Protocol version 2: draft-ietf-httpbis-http2-16". ietf.org. HTTPbis Working Group. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference charter was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "IETF HTTP Working Group". IETF HTTP Working Group. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference http2hist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Raymor, Brian (August 6, 2014). "Wait for it – HTTP/2 begins Working Group Last Call!". Microsoft Open Technologies. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference approval was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Mark Nottingham (February 18, 2015). "HTTP/2 Approved". ietf.org. Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
  10. ^ "RFC 7540 - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)". IETF. May 2015. Retrieved May 14, 2015.
  11. ^ "See what's new in Firefox!". www.mozilla.org. Mozilla Foundation. February 2015.
  12. ^ "Can the rise of SPDY threaten HTTP?". blog.restlet.com. Restlet, Inc. October 2011. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
  13. ^ "HTTP2 browser support". Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  14. ^ "Can I use... Support tables for HTML5, CSS3, etc". caniuse.com. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
  15. ^ "Usage of HTTP/2 for websites". World Wide Web Technology Surveys. W3Techs. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
  16. ^ Bishop, Mike (July 9, 2019). "Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 3 (HTTP/3)". tools.ietf.org. Retrieved July 31, 2019.
  17. ^ "Can I use... Support tables for HTML5, CSS3, etc". caniuse.com. Retrieved January 19, 2020.
  18. ^ Daniel, Stenberg. "Daniel Stenberg announces HTTP/3 support in Firefox Nightly". Twitter. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  19. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin (26 September 2019). "Cloudflare, Google Chrome, and Firefox add HTTP/3 support". ZDNet. Retrieved 27 September 2019.

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